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AGST 3000 Lecture 3 Agriculture Development… Domestication of Animals Development of Irrigation Development of Agri-cultures Define Domestication? To tame, to train to live with and to be of use to mankind. Genetic selection. What is the importance of domestic animals to mankind today?
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Herd animals (cattle, sheep, goats) domesticated by seed planters
A. Wheat & barley indigenous to the same region
II. Dooryard animals (dogs, pigs, geese, chickens, ducks) domesticated by vegetable planters.
III. Man may not have begun to keep animals for practical reasons – inborn tendency for keeping pets.
A. Ancient ancestors of cattle & sheep looked very little like today’s domestic versions.
IV. Imprinting – the tendency of young animals to follow the first living thing it sees and hears. Perhaps this tendency encouraged domestication.
V. A state of mutual indifference between man and wild animals may have been a requirement for domestication.
VI. Totemism may also have encouraged domestication.
Examples of animals used as totems?
VII. Cattle are most important livestock accounting for:
A. 50% of the world’s meat
B. 95% of the world’s milk
C. 80% of the world’s hides
D. important draft animals (oxen)
E. originated in Central Asia, spread to Europe, China, and Africa around
VIII. Man had to develop methods to harness the full power of draft animals
A. i.e., horse pulled 4 times more than man, increased to 15 times with a harness
IX. Western Hemisphere development delayed due to lack of herd animals
A. i.e., failure to invent wheel, plow, arch, rotational devised water wheels,
II. Irrigation was vital to the growth of civilization in both hemispheres.
A. Development of engineering skills spurred by technical aspects of diverting river water, draining marshes, building levies and dikes and canals.
B. Mathematics and astronomy developed as a basis for measuring land, time, and seasons.
C. Modern calendars developed in Egypt around 6,000 years ago (Egypt remains the longest lasting irrigation based society.)
III. Irrigation was successful over time where annual flooding leached excessive salts and replenished soils through siltation.
A. Egyptian cultures were the exception.
*Living in one place
I. Because man does not have to accept the environment.
II. Man can adapt the environment to his purposes and needs.