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POTENTIAL OF RAINFED AGRICULTURE IN INDIA. International Water Management Institute & Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (ICAR), Hyderabad. Estimated partitioning of the increased freshwater requirements between rainfed and irrigated agriculture.

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potential of rainfed agriculture in india

POTENTIAL OF RAINFED AGRICULTURE IN INDIA

International Water Management Institute

&

Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (ICAR), Hyderabad

slide2
Estimated partitioning of the increased freshwater requirements between rainfed and irrigated agriculture
slide3

Global analysis of over 100 agricultural developmental projects found that yield levels in projects focused on improving rainfed agriculture has raised on average by 100%, often several hundred percent, while the comparable achievement in irrigated projects was a yield increase of only 10%. Under rainfed farming, operating at a lower yield level, every new investment results in a relatively higher and more equitable yield response.

slide5

Annual P, PET and moisture deficit index for

different dryland stations of India

slide6

Rainfall partitioning in farming system in semi-arid tropics.

Non-productive

evaporation

Half of the rainfall is generally “lost” to the atmosphere as non-productive evaporation.

slide7

Drylands of India

  • Erratic rainfall leading to frequent drought events
  • Degraded lands
  • Resource poor farmers
  • Small and marginal holdings
  • Lowering of groundwater table

25 dryland centres and 25 Agromet centres work on dryland technologies all over the country

slide9

Challenges of Rainfed Areas

  • Drought and water scarcity is a constant threat
  • Stubborn poverty & food insecurity
  • Low rainwater use efficiency, low cropproductivity & high instability
  • Land degradation & declining soil health
  • Acute fodder shortage and poor livestock productivity
slide10

Comparison of important characteristics of

predominantly rainfed and irrigated regions of India

slide13

Any region which has less than 30% irrigated area through major/ minor/ groundwater irrigation is considered to be as rainfed and the agriculture practiced is “Rainfed Agriculture”

  • Water management ranges from in-situ conservation to drainage and ex-situ water harvesting for supplemental irrigation
  • Watershed based water management is backbone for overall land productivity improvement
  • Rainfed Agriculture covers all the climates and several annual/ perennial crops; thus encompasses a range of agro-eco-regions
  • Contribution to food production 44%
  • Supports 40% of populationand 2/3 of livestock
slide14

India- Rainfed Region

Irrigated area (> 30% irrigation)

Rainfed area (< 30% irrigation )

slide15

Change in area, irrigation and productivity:

Coarse Cereals

65.4

6.1%

0.59

0.98

1.04

slide19

Early Drought

Probability of consecutive 3 dry weeks

from July 1st Week

Probability (%)

slide20

Terminal Drought

Probability of consecutive 3 dry weeks

from September 2nd Week

Probability (%)

slide21

Identification of Rainfed districts

  • Priority 1
  • AESR 3-13
  • Districts constituting top 85% area
  • Priority 2
  • Districts with irrigation except canal irrigated (Future)
slide22

Selection Criteria

No. of Districts

Area under Sunflower (‘000 ha)

Area under Rainfed Sunflower

(‘000 ha)

Gross Cropped

Area

(‘000 ha)

Yield (kg/ha)

Rainfed States (13)

224

1630

1246

120243

492

AESR 3-13

179

1406

1075

97692

531

Cumulative 85% Rainfed Sunflower Area

11

1143

902

12067

441

Delineation of Sunflower Districts

State Name District Name

Karnataka Bijapur,Gulbarga,Raichur,Dharwad

Maharastra Ahmednagar,Solapur,Osmanabad,Beed,Parbhani,Nanded

slide23

Selection criteria

No. of districts

Area under Soybean (‘000 ha)

Area under Rainfed Soybean (‘000 ha)

Gross Cropped

Area

(‘000 ha)

Yield (kg/ha)

Rainfed states (13)

202

3666

3574

112689

532

AESR 3-13

160

3483

3391

90863

569

Cumulative 85% Rainfed Soybean Area

21

2857

2843

11217

911

Delineation of Rainfed Soybean Districts

State Name District Name

Madhya Pradesh Ujjain,Sehore,Mandsaur,Betul,Ratlam,Seoni,Narsinghpur,Vidisha,Shajapur, Hoshangabad, Dhar,Indore,Dewas,Chhindwara, Sagar, Guna, Raisen

Maharastra Nagpur

Rajasthan Jhalawar , Chittorgarh

slide24

Analysis of district/Sub-agro climatic region wise deficits of effective rainfall in meeting the water requirements of important crops at different time periods of crop growth.

  • Water balance analysis
      • Climatic water balance
      • Crop Water balance
  • FAO Crop water balance was carried out for each
  • district for dominant crops with dominant soil type and water holding capacity.
slide25

Not considered the spatial variability with in soil. Ideally, the model should be run for the crop covered area with underlying soil properties.

  • Constraint: Distribution of cropped area changes across the district during different years.
  • Sowing is supposed to be completed with normal onset of monsoon. Normal crop duration was assumed.
  • Results include crop wise and AESR wise surplus/deficit during the crop growing season.
  • FAO standard crop coefficients were used.
  • Surplus was estimated after deleting districts with surplus of 50mm and those districts with runoff less than 10% of rainfall.

Assumption: The above surplus can reasonably utilised through in-situ moisture conservation practices.

slide26

Dominant districts for Sunflower

60

50

Gulbarga

Bijapur

45

50

40

35

40

30

25

30

PPT/PE

20

20

15

10

10

5

0

0

1

4

7

1

4

7

10

13

16

19

22

25

28

31

34

37

10

13

16

19

22

25

28

31

34

37

40

43

46

49

52

week

PPT

PPT

PE

PE

PPT/PE

40

43

46

49

52

week

35

50

45

30

40

25

35

20

30

PPT/PE/WR

25

PPT/PE/WR

15

20

10

15

Gulbarga

PPT

Bijapur

10

PPT

5

PE

AWHC=150.00mm

PE

AWHC=150.00mm

WR

5

WR

0

0

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

Week

Week

slide27

Dominant districts for Cotton

70

80

Amaravathi

Yeotmal

70

60

60

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

0

1

3

5

7

9

1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

33

35

37

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

33

PPT

PPT

PE

PE

PPT/PE

PPT/PE

39

41

43

45

47

49

51

35

37

39

41

43

45

47

49

51

week

week

80

70

PPT

PPT

70

PE

PE

60

WR

WR

60

50

50

40

PPT/PE/WR

40

PPT/PE/WR

30

30

20

20

Yeotmal

AWHC=150.00mm

Amravati

10

10

AWHC=150.00mm

0

0

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

Week

Week

slide31

Drought Years

  • Case studies were carried out for few dominant districts of Andhra pradesh covering Rayalaseema, Telengana and Coastal Andhra regions.
  • Crop Water balance model was run for those dominant districts with predominant soil type for different years ranging from 1966 onwards.
  • Normal years and moderate drought years were separated based on IMD declaration for meteorological subdivision. Assumed that the those districts falling in that met divisions were all affected by drought.
  • Runoff was calculated for total crop season and for the period of SMW of 35-40 weeks which could be harvested for supplemental irrigation.
  • 2/3 of runoff during SMW 35-40 could be utilised for supplemental irrigation.
  • 85% application efficiency was considered.
slide34

Water Use is proportional to Yield

  • Difference in yield increase between drought to normal year is linearly proportional to difference in yield.
  • Incremental yield per mm of water is estimated. Based on runoff, harvestable runoff for supplemental irrigation is estimated and increase in production is also estimated.
slide36

During drought years production can be enhanced in medium to high rainfall areas with more certainity. Response from Medium to Deep soils would be higher.

  • During normal years, cropping intensity can be enhanced by provision of one irrigation at the time of sowing in rabi season.
  • Supplenmental irrigation can be given to low to medium deep soils in high to medium rainfall zones.
  • Stability of production can be ensured during normal years from shallow depth soils also.
slide37

IRS-P6 LISS-III data showing spatial distribution of COTTON crop

in Nagpur district (Oct. 11, 2004)

Area: 78000 ha

slide40

Yield gap analysis

Crop : Cotton

slide43

Assessment of the response of other production inputs use such as fertilizer, high-yielding variety use of major rainfed crops

Rain water harvesting and recycling – Farm pond - lined with local material

slide44

Improving the productivity of groundnut + pigeonpea intercropping system through

supplemental irrigation – Anantapurin a drought year

slide45

Effect of different amounts of supplemental irrigation during drought stress at

pod development stage of groundnut - Anantapur

slide46

Treatment

Green

leaf

(kg/ha)

Cured leaf (kg/ha)

Bright leaf (kg/ha)

Bright leaf

(%)

Grade index (kg/ha)

T1 20 mm, one irrigation

6858

1110

474

42.70

849

T2 30 mm, one irrigation

7238

1213

517

42.62

937

T3 30 mm two irrigation

(15 mm + 15 mm)

7254

1250

517

41.40

954

T4 40 mm one irrigation

7337

1238

529

42.70

962

T5 40 mm two irrigation

(20 mm + 20 mm)

7664

1283

548

42.70

990

T6 control (no irrigation)

5477

942

374

40.23

709

SEM 

240.69

65.72

33.60

52.20

CD at 5%

758.06

206.96

106.02

164.43

CV (%)

5.98

9.70

11.82

10.04

Supplemental irrigation improves Tobacco grade

slide47

Soil Water Conservation

  • Surplus Index Possible Options
  • <12 In-situ conservation (I)
  • 12-25 In-situ conservation (I) and Water Harvesting (WH)
  • >25 Drainage (D), In-situ conservation (I) and Water Harvesting
    • Crop Management Options
  • Yield Gap Possible Options
  • <33 Non monetary inputs (NMI) and improved varieties (V)
  • 33-66 Non monetary inputs (NMI), Fertilizer Management (F) and Improved Varieties (V)
  • >66 Improved Varieties (V), Fertilizer Management (F), Plant protection measures (PP), Non monetary inputs (NMI) or shifting alternate land uses
slide48

Viability of Water Harvesting in different Climatic Zones

P/PET is ratio of Precipitation (rainfall) to Potential Evapo-Transpiration

slide49

Components of Rainwater Management in watershed Mode

  • In-situ conservation
  • Grade line Bund
  • Drainage line treatment
  • Water harvesting & utilization
  • Groundwater recharge
slide50

Potential of replacement of dryland crops with other high production/value crops and diversification of agriculture

Intercropping system is stable with pigeonpea

Figures in parentheses are years of on-farm trials in Operational Research Project

slide51

Benefit-cost ratio

under different land use systems at Hyderabad