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Per Mollerup’s logo taxonomy CMIT - Graphics 2 http://www.ex.ac.uk/cmit Per Mollerup’s logo taxonomy Introduction why a taxonomy? the classifications examples Molllerup, Per, (1997), Marks of Excellence: History and Taxonomy of Trademarks, Phaidon http://www.designlab.dk/

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per mollerup s logo taxonomy
Per Mollerup’s logo taxonomy

CMIT - Graphics 2

http://www.ex.ac.uk/cmit

per mollerup s logo taxonomy2
Per Mollerup’s logo taxonomy
  • Introduction
    • why a taxonomy?
    • the classifications
    • examples

Molllerup, Per, (1997), Marks of Excellence: History and Taxonomy of Trademarks, Phaidon

http://www.designlab.dk/

why a taxonomy
why a taxonomy?
  • taxonomy – science and practice of classification
    • provides a framework for dividing up a topic
    • allows discussion and comparison within the topic, and to other topics outside the taxonomy
  • features of a taxonomy
    • classes should be distinct – sharp demarcation between each class
    • consistent – each step based on a single principle
    • mutually exclusive – no entry should be covered by more than one class
    • classes must be exhaustive – all possibilities covered
why a taxonomy4
why a taxonomy?
  • benefits;
    • graphics is a difficult topic to discuss at the best of times
    • allows certain features of a logo to be isolated and discussed
    • allows comparisons with other similar logos
    • provides for some level of consistency
    • there are not many methodical or mechanical approaches to logo design available
    • (makes you look really good to the client when they see it in the critique that accompanies the design!)
  • criticisms
    • the taxonomy is flawed on most of the points outlined
    • not universally recognised or accepted
    • impossible to tell at this stage what the future holds for this work
first level
first level;
  • non-graphic marks
    • things that can be trademarked that are not graphics, eg the shape of the Coca Cola bottle
  • graphic marks
    • can be divided into pictures and text
second level
second level
  • letter marks
    • rely on text for recognition
    • may be a defined typeface, a modified typeface or representation of text using graphics
    • gradual demarcation between what is text and what is a picture
    • can be divided into names and abbreviations
  • picture marks
    • may be more or less abstract, elaborate
    • may be derived from letters
    • can be divided into pictures of objects, or pictures in their own right
third level letter marks
third level – letter marks
  • abbreviations;
    • can be divided into initial abbreviations or non-initial abbreviations
    • often the original meaning is lost
  • name marks;
    • brands that are named after things or people
    • again origin may be lost
    • can be divided into proper names, descriptive names, metaphoric names, found names or artificial names
third level picture marks
third level – picture marks
  • non-figurative marks;
    • pictures in their own right, are not recognisable as other objects
    • may have begun as figurative marks, but the meaning is now lost, eg Citroen
  • figurative marks;
    • may be highly elaborate ranging to highly abstract / simplified
    • can be divided into marks that represent the product, marks that are metaphors of the product or found marks
fourth level picture marks
fourth level – picture marks
  • descriptive marks
    • eg a fish logo representing a fish monger or restaurant
  • metaphoric marks
    • eg a gazelle representing a courier
  • found marks
    • any object used to represent a brand, eg squirrel representing a print and design shop
    • some marks were once descriptive or metaphoric but now the meaning is lost, eg Shell logo
fourth level letter marks non abbreviations
fourth level – letter marks, non-abbreviations
  • proper names
    • Bass, Ford, Marks and Spencer
  • descriptive names
    • National Grid, News of the World
  • metaphoric
    • Aviva, Nike
  • found
    • Kingfisher, Taunton Cider
  • artifical
    • Elf, Kodak
fourth level letter marks abbreviations
fourth level – letter marks, abbreviations
  • non-initial abbreviations
    • eg ESSO – Southern Oil, FedEx – Federal Express
  • initial abbreviations
    • original meaning may be lost
    • may be initials of proper names, descriptive company names
    • can be divided into acronyms and non acronyms
fifth level letter marks abbreviations initial abbreviations
fifth level – letter marks, abbreviations, initial abbreviations
  • acronyms
    • NASA
  • non-acronyms
    • IBM