per mollerup s logo taxonomy l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Per Mollerup’s logo taxonomy PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Per Mollerup’s logo taxonomy

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 12
Download Presentation

Per Mollerup’s logo taxonomy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

lotus
484 Views
Download Presentation

Per Mollerup’s logo taxonomy

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Per Mollerup’s logo taxonomy CMIT - Graphics 2 http://www.ex.ac.uk/cmit

  2. Per Mollerup’s logo taxonomy • Introduction • why a taxonomy? • the classifications • examples Molllerup, Per, (1997), Marks of Excellence: History and Taxonomy of Trademarks, Phaidon http://www.designlab.dk/

  3. why a taxonomy? • taxonomy – science and practice of classification • provides a framework for dividing up a topic • allows discussion and comparison within the topic, and to other topics outside the taxonomy • features of a taxonomy • classes should be distinct – sharp demarcation between each class • consistent – each step based on a single principle • mutually exclusive – no entry should be covered by more than one class • classes must be exhaustive – all possibilities covered

  4. why a taxonomy? • benefits; • graphics is a difficult topic to discuss at the best of times • allows certain features of a logo to be isolated and discussed • allows comparisons with other similar logos • provides for some level of consistency • there are not many methodical or mechanical approaches to logo design available • (makes you look really good to the client when they see it in the critique that accompanies the design!) • criticisms • the taxonomy is flawed on most of the points outlined • not universally recognised or accepted • impossible to tell at this stage what the future holds for this work

  5. first level; • non-graphic marks • things that can be trademarked that are not graphics, eg the shape of the Coca Cola bottle • graphic marks • can be divided into pictures and text

  6. second level • letter marks • rely on text for recognition • may be a defined typeface, a modified typeface or representation of text using graphics • gradual demarcation between what is text and what is a picture • can be divided into names and abbreviations • picture marks • may be more or less abstract, elaborate • may be derived from letters • can be divided into pictures of objects, or pictures in their own right

  7. third level – letter marks • abbreviations; • can be divided into initial abbreviations or non-initial abbreviations • often the original meaning is lost • name marks; • brands that are named after things or people • again origin may be lost • can be divided into proper names, descriptive names, metaphoric names, found names or artificial names

  8. third level – picture marks • non-figurative marks; • pictures in their own right, are not recognisable as other objects • may have begun as figurative marks, but the meaning is now lost, eg Citroen • figurative marks; • may be highly elaborate ranging to highly abstract / simplified • can be divided into marks that represent the product, marks that are metaphors of the product or found marks

  9. fourth level – picture marks • descriptive marks • eg a fish logo representing a fish monger or restaurant • metaphoric marks • eg a gazelle representing a courier • found marks • any object used to represent a brand, eg squirrel representing a print and design shop • some marks were once descriptive or metaphoric but now the meaning is lost, eg Shell logo

  10. fourth level – letter marks, non-abbreviations • proper names • Bass, Ford, Marks and Spencer • descriptive names • National Grid, News of the World • metaphoric • Aviva, Nike • found • Kingfisher, Taunton Cider • artifical • Elf, Kodak

  11. fourth level – letter marks, abbreviations • non-initial abbreviations • eg ESSO – Southern Oil, FedEx – Federal Express • initial abbreviations • original meaning may be lost • may be initials of proper names, descriptive company names • can be divided into acronyms and non acronyms

  12. fifth level – letter marks, abbreviations, initial abbreviations • acronyms • NASA • non-acronyms • IBM