The Conquest Military Regime and the Royal Proclamation
A Game of Charades • One word, four syllables • First syllable: a car in Boston • Second syllable: the ____________ and the pendulum • Third syllable: not be but ________ • Fourth syllable: not on time Capitulate
The Military Regime - Capitulation • Quebec City had been captured by the British • Mtl. Had been under siege • In 1760, the French at Mtl. capitulated (gave up without fighting) • Two sides made an agreement, written up in a document called, The Articles of Capitulation
Articles of Capitulation • Militiamen could return to their homes • People could keep property • People could stay Catholic (nuns could stay, Jesuit priests had to leave) • People were British subjects • British refused to protect France’s Native allies • No one would be deported to France, but people were free to leave if they wanted to
Continued . . . • Who stayed: most merchants, clergy, artisans and peasants stayed – they had ties to the colonyWhat would those ties be? • They had family, homes, property, a place in the community • Who left: many administrators who relied on France for their jobs left, some merchants with ties to French companies left
Military Regime – a time to rebuild • War continued in Europe until 1762 • Military rule was set up in NF until a peace treaty in Europe could be signed • They abolished the tithe (church tax) • Military governors tried to help w/reconstruction, and avoided interfering in the daily life of the people • New France had been destroyed by 6yrs of war, especially Quebec City, everything had to be rebuilt
Military Regime – General Murray • General Murray stayed helped in Quebec City • Ordered his troops to respect Catholic possessions • Met w/ native Huron allies to make agreements • Helped organize the harvest in order to stave off mass starvation
Military Regime - Problems • Starvation throughout the colony was a major concern • Also trouble with Natives in the west led by Pontiac • They felt that British trade practices were unfair and didn’t like whites moving on to their land • They attacked traders in Great Lake region – 2000 settlers killed • A treaty signed in 1766 with the western natives
Chief Pontiac of the Ottawa • Pontiac's War was the most successful First Nations resistance to the European invasion in our history. Though it failed to oust the British from native lands, the conflict forced British authorities to a recognition of native rights that has had had far-reaching consequences down to our own time.
The Effects of the Conquest • English Canadians still believe the Conquest was good for Canada • French Canadiens see it as negative – French regime was the “Golden Age” • Conquest seen by many as roots of the problems of modern Quebec – a reason for nationalism • It was because of the conquest that ties to France were cut, the Bourgeoisie left (no longer added to French economy) – French Canadiens no longer dominated economy
An example of economic changes – the fur trade • Many French merchants returned to France (the bourgeoisie) • English and Scottish merchants came to NA – took up the roles of Fre. merchants in the fur trade • Fur trade increased in prosperity after conquest • Many made money
James McGill • James McGill • 1744 - 1813 • Fur trader. Born in Glasgow, and educated at the University of Glasgow. He emigrated to Canada (1765) and made a fortune in the fur trade of the north-west territories. He left £10,000 (aprx. $20, 000) and one of his estates to found McGill University in Montreal (1821).
The Royal Proclamation • Treaty of Paris (1763) ended Seven Years War in Europe – New France officially became part of the British empire • In 1763, an official announcement (a proclamation)was issued – called RoyalProclamation: • It created Quebec (much smaller then NF) • All the land west was “Indian Territory” (no one allowed to settle) • Set up a civilian government to replace military rule • Established English criminal and civil law
Royal Proclamation-Structure of Government King • Held absolute power • Appointed the governor Governor • Looked after affairs of the colony • Appointed members of the executive council Executive Council • Advise the governor on affairs of the colony Elected Assembly • Was not formed because of problems with the Test Act
Royal Proclamation continued • First governor of Quebec was General Murray (1760-66) • Goal of the Proclamation - assimilation of the Fre., Murray’s duty to carry this out • He was instructed to establish Eng. Laws and Anglican Church, use English schools to assimilate young French, encourage British immigration (immigration from France no longer allowed)
Royal Proclamation - Problems • most people lived in rural areas and had no contact with the British, so no way for them to assimilate • Major problem with Test Act (1763): this act required that people who held public office belong to Anglican Church – French Catholics couldn’t hold office or be in elected assembly
Royal Proclamation – Murray’s Solutions • Murray realized it was impossible to carry out Royal Proclamation – instead tried to win over Fre. • He didn’t form elected assembly right away – realized the problem with Test Act and knew an Elected Assembly would anger Fre. • Instead, he ruled through the Council • Council was helpful to the Fre. • He allowed Fre. Civil laws, but Eng. Criminal ones • He helped Catholicism survive (let most religious orders remain and allowed new Bishop)
Murray’s End • Murray’s actions were smart, but Eng. Traders demanded he be replaced • Sir Guy Carleton replaced him in 1766 • However, Carleton continued Murray’s policies
Sir Guy Carleton • “Barring a catastrophe shocking to think of, this country must, to the end of time, be peopled by the Canadien race.” -Sir Guy Carleton
Troubles in British North America • The British were facing problems in the Thirteen Colonies and Quebec • English merchants wanted Royal Proclamation to be enforced: English laws, elected assembly • Governor, clergy, seigneurs (those supporting the French) wanted concessions: French laws, acceptance of Catholicism, French in government office, larger territory • Carleton recommended these concessions to keep Fre. loyal in case of war in Thirteen Colonies-result is the Quebec Act
The Quebec Act of 1774 • Quebec Act repealed Royal Proclamation • Quebec is tripled in size (to south of Great Lakes into Ohio Valley-good for fur trade) • Catholicism protected, tithe collection restored • French civil laws, English criminal • Seigneurial rights respected • No elected assembly, governor has a Legislative Council to advise him • Oath to the King replaces Test Act-Catholics can hold public office
Changes in Territory – The American View • Americans were angry about the expansion of Quebec. This land had been reserved as an “Indian Territory”, but the Americans had wanted it. They were unhappy when Quebec was granted this valuable land.
Reactions to the Quebec Act • English merchants angry – too many concession to Fre. • Fre. elite (seigneurs) happy – regained their rights • Habitants are indifferent – however, upset about tithe • Inhabitants of Thirteen Colonies angry – lost territory on Ohio Valley, considered gov’t system undemocratic, object to acceptance of Fre. laws and Catholicism