Development Project By: Kathey George . Physical Development. Part 1. Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud was a Viennese physician who developed the psychosexual theory.
By: Kathey George
Freud’s second stage of psychosexual is anal, that is developed during the ages of 1-3 years.
Stage 2: Anal
At this website you will see a comparison of Freud’s Psychosexual stage with Erikson’s broader psychosocial stages. Erikson being a neo-Freudian took useful information from Freud’s theory and expanded it as seen on the next slide.
If you look at this site you will see that Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory takes a broader view of the factors that impact human development. He places importance on the social and cultural components of an individual's developmental experiences.
Erikson's Broader View
http://www.illinoisearlylearning.org/faqs/physicaldev.htm is a great site that shows the physical development from newborn to 4-5 years old. The site explains the developmental milestones in physical growth and activities that encourage the development.
Reflexive schemes (birth- 1 month): newborn reflexes such as looking and sucking
If you go to the site: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/assimacc.htm it converses about assimilation and accommodation and how it is two correspondingmethods of adaptation depicted by Piaget through which knowledge of the outside world is internalized.
Assimilation: exterior world is construed in terms of existing methods.
Accommodation: new schemes are formed and old ones accustomed to generate a better fit with the environment.
Play disengages from the real-life circumstances related with it
Play develop into less self-absorbed
Play comprises more intricate arrangements of schemes
At this site you will see an animation that exhibits Piaget’s research, “Three Mountain Problem.” This test supports his theory that children attain egocentrism characteristics of thought for the period of the preoperational stage of cognitive development. Piaget would like to illustrate that children have a self-centered view of the world at this age. This flash animation displays Piaget's theory. The girl is sitting in front of a mountain that has a cross visible only from her side. In addition, there is a doll on the other side of the mountain. According to Piaget's work, if preoperational children are asked to say what the doll can see, their response would reflect what can be seen from their perspective only, (Chen, Irwin, Parker, Roushanzamir ,2004).
In Vygotsky’s theory, he created the zone of proximal development which is a variety of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can achieve with the assistance of more skilled partners such as teachers and students.
Zone of Proximal Development
http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1zpda.htm is a website that illustrates the table to the right on the zone of proximal development. The diagram/table goes through all four stages and what occurs during each phase.
The main difference was that Piaget accentuated his theory on the natural line where as Vygotsky favored the cultural line of development.
Basic trust vs. mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Initiative vs. guilt is the third stage of Erikson’s theory and the period of development is three to six years old.
Initiative vs. Guilt
At this website you will see Erikson’s psychosocial theory summary diagram, Freud’s influence on Erikson’s theory, meanings and interpretations of his eight stages, and the following chart of Erikson’s Psychosocial stages.
Children all develop at different rates and different traits. Many scientists studied the development of children and concluded with theories that we as educators, parents, and adults utilize. Children develop physically, cognitively, emotionally, and socially into their adulthood.