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Development Project By: Kathey George . Physical Development. Part 1. Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud was a Viennese physician who developed the psychosexual theory.

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Development Project

By: Kathey George


Sigmund Freud

  • Sigmund Freud was a Viennese physician who developed the psychosexual theory.
  • The psychosexual theory: accentuates how parents handle their sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years of life that is vital for healthy personality development.
  • In Freud’s theory there are three parts of personality:
      • ID: the largest portion of the mind, and the foundation of fundamental biological needs and desires
      • EGO: the conscious, coherent part of personality that appear in early infancy to convey the id’s impulses so that they are released in adequate ways.
      • SUPEREGO: conscience extends during interactions with parents, who claim that children obey the rules to the morals of society.
  • In Freud’s theory he produced five psychosexual stages: Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital.

Stage 1: Oral

  • Freud’s first stage of psychosexual is oral, which is during the period of development of birth to one year.
  • During the oral stage the infant’s primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth so the rooting and sucking reflex is important.
  • The sucking reflex directs to certain activities such as breast or bottle feeding.
  • If oral fixation is not met appropriately it can lead to develop negative habits such as drinking, smoking, nail biting, and excessive eating.

Freud’s second stage of psychosexual is anal, that is developed during the ages of 1-3 years.

  • Throughout the anal stage Freud said that the focal point of the libido was on controlling bowel and bladder movements.
  • The foremost inconsistency throughout this stage is the toilet-training, and the child has to become skilled to manage bodily needs.
  • Freud believes that encouraging practices all through this stage led by parents/guardians provide as the foundation for people to become proficient, helpful, and imaginative adults.

Stage 2: Anal


Stage 3: Phallic

  • Freud’s third stage of psychosexual is phallic which is during the period of development of 3 to 6 years old.
  • The primary focus of the phallic stage is the genitals. Children become aware of the differences between male and female.
  • Freud’s Oedipus conflict for boys and Electra conflict for girls take place: children undergo a sexual desire for the other-sex parent. To evade reprimand they give up the desire and implement the same-sex parents’ characteristics and values.
  • This is when the superego is formed, and children feel guilty each time they defy its standards.

Stage 4: Latency

  • The fourth stage of psychosexual is latency. This is developed around the age of 6 to 11 years.
  • Interests are censored during the latent period. This stage starts around the time children begin school and become more apprehensive with peer relationships, hobbies, and other interests.
  • Latent stage is significant in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence.
  • The child attains new social values from adults and same-sex peers outside the family.
  • Sexual impulses die down and the superego continues to develop.

Stage 5: Genital

  • The final stage of Freud’s psychosexual development is the genital. The Period of development is adolescence.
  • The individual develops a physical powerful sexual interest in the opposite sex. With puberty, the sexual inclinations of the phallic stage re-emerge.
  • The interest in the wellbeing of others grows during this stage. The objective of this stage is to institute a sense of balance between the various life areas. This stage broadens in the course of adulthood.

Erik Erikson created the psychosocial stages.

  • Psychosocial theory emphasizes that at each Freudian stage, individuals not only develop a unique personality but also acquire attitudes and skills that help them become active contributing members of their society.
  • Erikson was one of the first to recognize the lifespan nature of development.
  • Erikson’s first five stages parallel Freud’s stages but Erikson added three adult stages: (Intimacy vs. isolation, Generativity vs. stagnation, and integrity vs. despair). The first five stages are:
    • Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
    • Autonomy vs. Shame
    • Initiative vs. Guilt
    • Industry vs. Inferiority
    • Identity vs. Role confusion

Erik Erikson


Freud vs. Erikson

At this website you will see a comparison of Freud’s Psychosexual stage with Erikson’s broader psychosocial stages. Erikson being a neo-Freudian took useful information from Freud’s theory and expanded it as seen on the next slide.


If you look at this site you will see that Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory takes a broader view of the factors that impact human development. He places importance on the social and cultural components of an individual's developmental experiences.

Erikson's Broader View


Eleanor & James Gibson

  • Eleanor and James came up with the differentiation theory
  • The theory stated that the view that perceptual development involves the detection of increasingly fine-grained invariant features in the environment
  • Perceptual differentiation is guided by discovery of affordances: the action possibilities that a situation offers and individual.

Infant-Early Childhood is a great site that shows the physical development from newborn to 4-5 years old. The site explains the developmental milestones in physical growth and activities that encourage the development.



  • In the developmental stage of middle childhood the ages are around 7-8 years old.
  • this is the period of time when their friends/classmates are more significant than before and effects of peer pressure start to arise.
  • Arms and legs large muscles are more developed. The children can bounce a ball and run.
  • There might be a difference in the size and abilities of children which affects how they get along with students and friends, and how they feel about themselves.
  • Seven to nine-year old students are learning to use their small muscle skills or fine motor skills by writing and their large muscle skills or gross motor skills like catching a ball.


  • is a link that explains the development changes through the years of adolescents and how puberty changes their attitude, behavior, and body functions. Some information from the link is below:
  • Adolescents experience a growth spurt, which involves rapid growth of bones and muscles. This begins in girls around the ages of 9-12 and in boys around the ages of 11-14. Sexual maturation (puberty) also begins at this time. During puberty, most adolescents will experience:
  • oilier skin and some acne
  • increased sweating especially under arms
  • growth of pubic and underarm hair, and facial and chest hair in boys
  • changes in body proportions
  • masturbation and fantasies about sexual intimacy
  • in boys, enlargement of testicles, erections, first ejaculation, wet dreams, deepening voice
  • in girls, breast budding, increased vaginal lubrication and the beginning of the menstrual cycle

Jean Piaget

  • Jean Piaget was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist, and developmental psychologist who created his cognitive-developmental theory.
  • Cognitive-Developmental Theory: is an approach established by Piaget that analyzes children as energetically building knowledge as they manipulate and discover their world and that considers cognitive development as taking place in stages.
  • Piaget influenced that children are active learners whose minds consist of prosperous structures of knowledge. Piaget studied the child’s perceptive of the physical world and also their interpretation about the social world.
  • Piaget’s theory promoted the advancement of educational philosophies and programs that accentuates children’s discovery learning and direct contact with the atmosphere/environment.
      • In Piaget’s Cognitive-developmental theory, it consists of four stages:
        • Sensorimotor
        • Preoperational
        • Concrete Operational
        • Formal Operational


  • In Piaget’s cognitive development theory the first stage is Sensorimotor, which is in the period of development of birth to two years.
  • Cognitive development commences in the sensorimotor period with the baby’s use of the senses and movements to discover the world.
  • Piaget divided the sensorimotor stage in to six sub-stages:
      • Reflexive Schemes (birth-1 month)
      • Primary circular reactions (1-4 months)
      • Secondary circular reactions (4-8 months)
      • Coordination of secondary circular reactions ( 8-12 months)
      • Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 months)
      • Mental representation (18 months -2 years)

Reflexive schemes (birth- 1 month): newborn reflexes such as looking and sucking

  • Primary circular reactions (1-4 months): straightforward motor tendencies centered on the infant’s own body such as sucking his/her thumb.
  • Secondary circular reactions (4-8 months): child becomes more alert on the surroundings and starts to purposely replicate an action in order to produce a reaction in the atmosphere, Imitation of related behaviors occur.
  • Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8-12 months): intentional behavior, the perceptive of objects initiates and children begin to distinguish certain objects having particular qualities, and object permanence.
  • Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 months): children start on a phase of trial and error testing, imitation of different behaviors, and capability to seek out in numerous locations for a hidden item.
  • Mental representation (18 months-2 years): make-believe play, deferred imitation, and inner interpretation of objects and events.

Sensorimotor Sub-stages


If you go to the site: it converses about assimilation and accommodation and how it is two correspondingmethods of adaptation depicted by Piaget through which knowledge of the outside world is internalized.


Assimilation: exterior world is construed in terms of existing methods.

Accommodation: new schemes are formed and old ones accustomed to generate a better fit with the environment.




  • Piaget’s second stage in cognitive developmental theory is preoperational. The preoperational stage occurs during the ages of two to seven years.
  • Preschool children utilize symbols to characterize their previous sensorimotor discoveries.
  • During the preoperational phase children goes through the most noticeable change in an enhancement in mental representation. Development of language and pretend play takes place.
  • Make-believe play reveals the preschool child’s growing symbolic mastery in three significant changes:

Play disengages from the real-life circumstances related with it

Play develop into less self-absorbed

Play comprises more intricate arrangements of schemes

  • Applying unbiased words, body outlines, and equipment a child can interact with gives a dynamic role in education.

Three-Mountain Problem

At this site you will see an animation that exhibits Piaget’s research, “Three Mountain Problem.” This test supports his theory that children attain egocentrism characteristics of thought for the period of the preoperational stage of cognitive development. Piaget would like to illustrate that children have a self-centered view of the world at this age. This flash animation displays Piaget's theory. The girl is sitting in front of a mountain that has a cross visible only from her side. In addition, there is a doll on the other side of the mountain. According to Piaget's work, if preoperational children are asked to say what the doll can see, their response would reflect what can be seen from their perspective only, (Chen, Irwin, Parker, Roushanzamir ,2004).'s_Stages


Concrete Operational

  • Concrete operational is the third stage in Piaget’s cognitive theory. The children’s period of development is between the ages of seven to eleven years old.
  • During this stage a child’s reasoning befall more coherent. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have trouble comprehending nonrepresentational or theoretical conceptions.
  • One imperative development in the concrete operational stage is recognizing reversibility, which is an understanding that procedures can be inverted.
  • An example of concrete operational thinking in a child: The certain amount of water poured in two different shaped glasses remains equivalent even if the exterior transforms.

Formal Operational

  • Formal operation is the fourth and last stage of Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory. From the age of eleven to adulthood is the period of development.
  • Berk (2008) asserted that in this stage young people develop the capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thinking, (Berk, 2008, p.566). For the duration of this stage, abilities such as deductive reasoning, logical thought, and systematic planning appears.
  • As an alternative of relying exclusively on prior understandings, children start to reflect on potential outcomes and consequences of actions. This type of thinking is essential in long-term development.
  • Piaget alleged that adolescents become competent of hypothetico-deductive reasoning: a formal operational problem solving approach that initiates with a hypothesis, from which logical presumptions can be inferred and then experienced by methodically separating and mingling variables.

Lev Vygotsky

  • Lev Vygotsky is a Russian psychologist who is known for developing the sociocultural theory of cognitive development.
  • Sociocultural theory: is Vygotsky’s theory, where children obtain different ways of thinking and behaving that build up a community’s culture through accommodating channels of communication with more well-informed members of their society.
  • The sociocultural theory focuses on how culture such as values, beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group is transmitted to the next generation. Vygotsky’s theory underscores the vital role of teaching and helps us understand the wide cultural variation in children’s cognitive skills.
  • His theory merges the social environment and cognition. Children will attain the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a culture by interrelating with a more knowledgeable person. He believed the key is social interaction which will pilot continuing changes in a child’s reflection and conduct.
  • Vygotsky analyzed cognitive development as a socially interceded progression in which children depend on support from adults and professional peers as they attempt new challenges.

In Vygotsky’s theory, he created the zone of proximal development which is a variety of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can achieve with the assistance of more skilled partners such as teachers and students.

  • To promote cognitive development social interaction must have 2 vital features which are intersubjectivity and scaffolding.
  • Intersubjectivity: is the practice where two accomplices who start on a assignment with dissimilar understandings reach a mutual understanding.
  • Scaffolding: is regulating the support presented in a teaching session to fit the child’s in progress level of performance.

Zone of Proximal Development

slide27 is a website that illustrates the table to the right on the zone of proximal development. The diagram/table goes through all four stages and what occurs during each phase.


Piaget Vs. Vygotsky

  • is the site of the following table on Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s cognitive theories. The PowerPoint on this site discusses about each theorists views and beliefs on the child’s cognitive development.

The main difference was that Piaget accentuated his theory on the natural line where as Vygotsky favored the cultural line of development.


Infant-Early Childhood

  • There is a lesson plan on this site called Sounds Around. This is an activity you can utilize from the period of development of birth to preschool years. The sounds of words are extremely significant to reading. A technique to assist children to study the sounds of words is to establish existent sounds in the world around them So an activity a parent/teacher could use is Sounds Around. In this activity a teacher/parent showed a picture of a dog and said “Woof woof!" And then showed picture of a cow and said ,” Mooo, moooo!” This shows emergent literacy.

Middle Childhood

  • In this lesson plan the teacher uses zone of proximal development to teach students mathematics. She broke down the lesson to six phases. First the problem was assigned, then students premeditated actions to answer the questions. These procedures involved drawing, writing, acting, and using tools. Next the teacher elicited communication of thinking by establishing a affiliation between student's informal language and formal mathematical. The students construed the outcomes of their personal answers with the solutions of students.With the teacher's regulation the students consulted the founding of the mathematical meanings. By the end of the lesson, in the course of their communication, students verified word overview, each understanding the knowledge but found in different ways.


  • In a 12th grade class the teacher use hypothetico-deductive reasoning in an English class over the book Separate Peace. The teacher incorporated six stages of reasoning: the configuration of an underlying question, hypothesis, and experimentation, prediction of the result, the concrete end result, and conclusion.
  • “Learning cycles in the discipline of English center on the forms of argument and use of the hypothetical-deductive thinking pattern. The exploration phase involves students in initial experiences with readings in which they look for examples of argument used by characters and the author in literary works,” (Kral, 1997).
  • The activities are planned to which students bring up questions, create and test hypotheses, argue in support of their own hypotheses and against hypotheses of other students, and realize disadvantages in arguments.

Erik Erikson a neo-Freudian produced the psychosocial theory.

  • Psychosocial theory accentuates that individuals not only expand a distinctive personality but in addition attain approaches and abilities that help them develop into active, contributing members of their society.
  • Erikson believed that the path of development is determined by the relations of the body, mind, and cultural influences and structured life and existence into eight stages that start from birth to death.
  • As a theorist Erikson contributed to our perceptive of personality and how it has developed and shaped over a lifespan.
  • We are going to narrow on Erikson’s first five stages of his psychosocial theory:

Basic trust vs. mistrust

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Initiative vs. Guilt

Industry vs. Inferiority

Identity vs. Role Confusion

Erik Erikson


Basic Trust vs. Mistrust

  • Erikson’s first stage of psychosocial theory is basic trust vs. mistrust which is in the period of development of birth to one year.
  • Basic trust vs. mistrust is the psychological conflict of infancy, which is resolved positively when care giving, particularly for the duration of feeding, is compassionate and affectionate.
  • From warm and responsive care infants gain a sense of trust, or confidence that the world is good.
  • Mistrust occurs when infants have to wait too long for comfort and are handled harshly.

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

  • In Erikson’s theory autonomy vs. shame and doubt is the second stage that is from the age of one to three years.
  • It is the emotional divergence of toddlerhood, which is resolved completely when parents give young children with appropriate guidance and logical options.
  • Applying new intellectual and motor skills, children desire to decide and select for themselves.
  • Autonomy is promoted when parents authorize practical free choice and do not oblige or disgrace the child.

Initiative vs. guilt is the third stage of Erikson’s theory and the period of development is three to six years old.

  • This stage is the mental argument of early childhood, which is resolved positively throughout play experiences that cultivate a strong logic of inventiveness and through the growth of a superego, or conscience, that is too harsh and/or guilt ridden.
  • During make-believe play, children test with the kind of a person they can become. Initiative- a sense of goal and responsibility- develops when parents maintain their child’s new wisdom of principle.
  • The danger is that parents will require too much self-discipline, which leads to excessive power, concluding too much shame.

Initiative vs. Guilt


Industry vs. Inferiority

  • Industry vs. inferiority is the fourth stage of Erikson's psychosocial theory. This stage occurs during the ages of six to eleven years old.
  • This stage is the psychological inconsistency of middle childhood, which is constructively fixed when occurrences guide children to increase a sense of competency at useful skills and tasks.
  • At school, children develop the aptitude to work and collaborate with others.
  • Inferiority develops when unconstructive experiences at home, at school, or with peers direct to feelings of lack of ability.

Identity vs. Role Confusion

  • Identity vs. role confusion is the fifth stage of Erikson's theory and it occurs during the period of development of adolescence.
  • This stage is the psychological conflict of adolescence, which is productively resolved when adolescents attain an identity after successful outcomes of earlier stages.
  • During this period of development adolescent attempts to answer questions such as who am I, and what is my place in this world?
  • By exploring values and vocational goals, the young person forms a personal identity.
  • The negative outcome is confusion about future adult roles.

At this website you will see Erikson’s psychosocial theory summary diagram, Freud’s influence on Erikson’s theory, meanings and interpretations of his eight stages, and the following chart of Erikson’s Psychosocial stages.


Thomas and Chess

  • “Temperament is early-appearing, stable individual differences in the quality and intensity of emotional reaction, activity level, attention, and emotional self-regulation,” (Berk, 2008, p.260).
  • Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess’s nine dimensions provided as the initial significant model of temperament.
  • at this site you will see a chart display of Thomas and Chess’s nine dimensions including the easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up child.
      • Easy child: rapidly institutes normal habits in infancy, is in general cheerful, and adjusts effortlessly to new experiences.
      • Difficult child: is unbalanced in every day schedules, is slow to understand new experiences, and likely to react disapprovingly and intensely
      • Slow-to-warm-up child: is dormant; demonstrates mild, low key responses to environmental incentives; is pessimistic in temper; and alters gradually to new experiences.


  • At this site you will see the above chart and description of Robert Selman’s five stages of perspective taking.
  • Perspective taking is the aptitude to envision what other people are thinking and feeling.

Lawrence Kohlberg

          • Lawrence Kohlberg was an American psychologist who created the theory and stages of moral development.
  • He organized moral development into three level, each with two stages that made six stages in total.
        • Kohlberg’s stages are linked to Selman’s perspective taking stages and promoted by the same factors of Piaget’s cognitive development.

Stages of Moral Understanding

  • Pre-conventional level: Kohlberg’s first level of moral development, where moral understanding is based on rewards, punishments, and the power of authority figures.
      • Stage 1: The punishment and Obedience Orientation
      • Stage 2: The instrumental purpose orientation
  • The Conventional level: second level of moral development, where moral understanding is based on conforming to social rules to ensure positive human relationships and maintain societal order.
      • Stage 3: The “good boy-good girl” orientation
      • Stage 4: The social-order-maintaining orientation
  • The Post-conventional or Principled Level: highest level of moral development, where individual define mortality in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies.
      • Stage 5: The social contract orientation
      • Stage 6: Universal ethical principle orientation

Kholberg's Theory of Moral Development

  • at this site is the following chart of Kohlberg's six stages of moral development and the explanation of Kohlberg's famous “Heinz Dilemma.”

Infancy- Early Childhood

  • Throughout infancy, toddler hood, and early childhood children undergo many developments such as:
  • Social smile and laughter emerge
  • Emotional expressions become well organized and meaningfully related to environmental events
  • Detects the meaning of other’s emotional expressions and engages in social referencing.
  • Joins in play with familiar adults, siblings, and peers.
  • Gender-stereotyped beliefs and behavior increase
  • Forms first friendships
  • Has acquired many morally relevant rules and behaviors.

Middle Childhood

  • In middle childhood children develop emotionally/ socially by :
  • self-concept begins to include personality traits and social comparisons.
  • Empathic responding extends to general life conditions
  • Peer groups emerge
  • Friendships become more selective and are based on mutual trust
  • Gender identity expands to include self-evaluations of typicality, contentedness, and pressure to conform.


  • Adolescents endure emotional and social development by:
  • Moodiness and parent-child conflict have a tendency to increase
  • In striving for autonomy, spends less time with parents and siblings, and more time with peers.
  • Self-esteem distinguishes advances and tends to rise.
  • Continues to create an identity
  • Romantic ties last longer

Children all develop at different rates and different traits. Many scientists studied the development of children and concluded with theories that we as educators, parents, and adults utilize. Children develop physically, cognitively, emotionally, and socially into their adulthood.