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HAPPY CINCO DE MAYO!. The holiday of Cinco de Mayo is primarily a regional holiday in Mexico, celebrated in the state of Puebla . There is some limited recognition of the holiday in other parts of the country. [7] For the most part the celebrations combine food, music and dancing.

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happy cinco de mayo
  • The holiday of Cinco de Mayo is primarily a regional holiday in Mexico, celebrated in the state of Puebla. There is some limited recognition of the holiday in other parts of the country.[7] For the most part the celebrations combine food, music and dancing.
  • In Mexico City like the rest of the Mexican capitals all the young men who serve the military services pledge allegiance to the Mexican national flag and the institutions that it represents.
battle of puebla

The holiday commemorates an initial victory of Mexican forces led by General Ignacio Zaragoza Seguín over French forces in the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862. The date is observed in the United States and other locations around the world as a celebration of Mexican heritage and pride.

Although the Mexican army was victorious over the French at Puebla, the victory only delayed the French invasion of Mexico City; a year later, the French occupied Mexico. The French occupying forces placed Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico on the throne of Mexico. The French were eventually defeated and expelled in 1867. Maximilian was executed by President Benito Juarez, five years after the Battle of Puebla.
i washington takes office
I. Washington Takes Office
  • Washington’s inauguration

took place on April 30, 1789.

  • Inauguration is

the ceremony of swearing

a public official into office.

  • Today it is on

Noon, Jan. 20 for Pres.

oath of office
Oath of Office

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Washington Bible


New York City

  • Vice President:

John Adams

(had ran against Washington & lost)

problems facing washington
Problems Facing Washington
  • Examples are:

-As the first President,

he is not quite sure what to do or how to act. He has no examples to follow.

-He has to carry out the

new constitution.

-the 13 states did not

always work together well.

-Huge national debt:

owed: $81.5 million

Receives: $4.5 million

-Relations with Britain and France worsen.

war in Europe; Interfering with our trade and ships.

ii a time of many firsts
II. A Time of Many Firsts
  • What is a precedent?

This is setting an example that others follow.

1.Examples of precedents

established by Washington

& copied by other Presidents:

Action: Copied?

1.The Chief Executive

Should be called President:


  • The Pres. Should not

parade in public and shake



Washington would not

accept invitations to go

to someone’s house for



  • He established a group

of expert advisors Yes, the cabinet.

Every Pres. has had one.

No person should serve

as President more than 2 terms.


Washington believed no

person should serve more than

2 terms.

  • What President broke this


Franklin D. Roosevelt

  • How many times was he



What constitutional

amendment limits the

number of terms one person

may serve as President now?

22nd Amdt.

  • How long is a Presidential


one term = 4 years

The 22nd Amdt. Limits

the Presidency to

2 terms or 10 years.

III. The Cabinet

  • The cabinet is

a group of the President’s closest advisors who lead executive branch departments.

What does the Const.

say about the Cabinet?

It doesn’t. It says

the President may

appoint certain

officials with approval of the Senate.

  • Has every President

had a cabinet?


(Andrew Jackson has his official cabinet & one called the “Kitchen Cabinet.”)

d the first cabinet
D. The First Cabinet

Position Dept. Duties Person

Secretary of

State State

Handles America’s

relations with

foreign countries

-negotiates treaties




Position Dept. Duties Person

Secretary of the

Treasury Treasury

Gives economic

advice to the Pres.



Secretary of War War

(now Defense) Defense

gives military

advice to Pres.



Attorney General


gives legal advice

to Exec. Branch



Postmaster General

(No longer on Cabinet) Postal Service

Mail system

Samuel Osgood

Washington had 5 Exec.

Depts. How does this compare to


there are 15 depts. today. The newest dept. is

the Dept. of Homeland


today s cabinet
Today’s Cabinet
  • Secretary of State H. Clinton
  • Secretary of the Treasury T. Geithner
  • Secretary of Defense R. Gates
  • Attorney General E. Holder
  • Secretary of the Interior K. Salazar
  • Sec. of Commerce G. Locke

7. Sec. of Agriculture T. Vilsack

8. Sec. of Labor H. Solis

9. Sec. of Health & Human Services

K. Sebelius

10. Sec. of Housing & Urban Development

S. Donovan

11. Sec. of Transportation: R. LaHood

12. Sec. of Energy S. Chu

13. Sec of Education A. Duncan

14. Sec. of Veterans Affairs E. Shinseki

15. Sec. of Homeland Security J. Napolitano

Which of Washington’s

Cabinet positions is no longer

part of the cabinet?

Postmaster Gen.

  • Today the Dept. of

War is called The Dept. of


iv establishing a federal court system
IV. Establishing a Federal Court System
  • The Const. calls for the

Judicial Branch to be made

of one supreme court and

lower courts established

by Congress.

  • Early in Washington’s

Presidency, Congress

passed a law establishing

the federal court system:

Federal Judiciary Act of 1789

c the federal court system
C.The Federal Court System

Board diagram and labels

Most cases begin and

end here:


  • To become a federal

court judge: One must be appointed

by the President and

approved by the Senate.

d the u s supreme court
D. The U.S. Supreme Court
  • Judges are called:


  • Head judge is called:

Chief Justice

3. # of justices on the

Supreme Court today:


Term of a federal court



  • Who was the first Chief


John Jay

  • Our present Chief


John Roberts

v handling the nation s money troubles
V. Handling the Nation’s Money Troubles
  • Who was to develop a plan

to deal with the debt problems?

Alexander Hamilton

a hamilton s plan
A. Hamilton’s Plan
  • The U.S. govt. will absorb

the debts of the states from

the war. Why? It is easier to organize payment of one amount rather

than 14.

Formed the first

National Bank.

Purposes: It will be a place where

the federal govt. may keep its money.

It can earn money too.

How did the bank

earn money? Gives loans and charges interest.

Invests in other businesses

Sell bonds

A bond is a certificate that promises to pay the holder a certain amount of money when it matures on a certain date.

How do savings bonds work?

Buy from a bank;

The bond is purchased at a

price of about half the bond’s


The holder of the bond will be able to cash the bond in after a period of time for an increased value.

When the bond matures it is worth close to the value printed on it.

4 protective tariffs were established
4. Protective tariffs were established

A tariff is a tax on certain


Who do they protect?

They are to protect American goods & business from cheaper foreign goods & unfair competition.

5 whiskey tax
5. Whiskey Tax

It taxed what? All liquor made and sold in the U.S. including corn whiskey made by farmers.

What group complained

most? Western farmers

Corn grew abundantly in the Central Plains.

To sell surplus corn, farmers left home and took it by wagon to far off cities. This was a long and difficult trip by wagon for many.

Turning the corn into whiskey seemed to be a solution.

c whiskey rebellion
C. Whiskey Rebellion

1. Who?

A group of Western Pennsylvanian farmers

  • What do they do? Protest marches

Sang songs

Made protest speeches

Refused to pay the tax

What will Washington

do? He sent 15,000 militia

to stop the rebellion!

  • Why?

He wanted to send a clear message the job of the President is to

enforce the law.

How did the rebellion end?

The militia showed up and the rebellion ended.

Leaders promised to obey the law & Washington sent them home.

6. Message: “The Federal government will act firmly in times of crisis.”

VI Foreign Problems
  • Domestic issues refer to

issues dealing within the U.S.

  • Foreign issues refer to

issues outside the U.S. with other countries.

1789-1793 French Revolution
  • What event marks its


The storming & taking of the Bastille (fortress/ prison)

What happened to the

French king & queen? King Louis XVI, Queen Marie Antoinette, and much of their government were beheaded.

What was the “Reign of

Terror?” After the fall of the govt. several groups struggled for power. Many executions;

  • Neighboring countries

declared war on France.

Why? They wanted to crush the dangerous ideas of overthrowing the govt. by revolution & put a king back on the throne.

-War: France v.

Great Britain





-Who will France ask to help?


Why? France helped us in our revolution.

Washington’s Answer:

Neutrality Proclamation

  • To be neutral means

to not take sides in a


2. French Reaction: U.S. has betrayed them. We have broken the treaty signed in the Amer. Rev.

2. U.S. Problem: the U.S. will trade with both sides.

h why did the u s stay neutral
H. Why did the U.S. stay neutral?

U.S. is not ready for war. If we enter we may lose.

War would increase our

national debt.

The treaty with France was with a govt. that no longer exists.

Both France and England

Began stopping our trading ships & taking cargo.

Impressment is the taking of crew from one country’s ships and forcing them to serve in a foreign navy.

vii president john adams
VII. President John Adams
  • XYZ Affair
  • Adams will send 3

Americans to what country

to discuss worsening

problems over trade.


These three Americans wished to speak with Foreign Minister Charles Talleyrand

How will the Americans

be treated?

When they arrive in France they will be ignored by the French government.

  • Who was X, Y. & Z?

3 French agents come to their room. They introduce themselves as Agents X,Y, & Z

What was their offer?

For the Americans to speak to Talleyrand…

The U.S. must give Talleyrand $250,000 bribe.

The U.S. must loan France $10 million.

The Americans refused and came home.

Many Americans called for war.

three laws which will hurt the federalists and john adams
Three Laws Which Will Hurt the Federalists and John Adams
  • Alien Act
  • An alien is a foreigner who is living inside the country

2. The law allows the President to expel from the country any foreigner “thought to be dangerous.”

Targets whom?

Many immigrants were favoring the Dem.- Rep.s in the upcoming election. Immigrants from France especially were critical of the Federalists.

Sedition Act
  • Sedition means to

stir up rebellion

  • The law allows citizens to be jailed or fined for criticizing public officials like the Pres.
  • Targets whom?


Naturalization Act
  • Naturalization is

the process of an immigrant becoming a citizen of the U.S..

  • The law

lengthens the time it takes to become a citizen from 5 to 14 yrs.

  • Targets Whom?

Non-citizens can’t vote


Huge losses for the Federalist party in the next election

Adams is not reelected.

(3rd place out of 4)