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Warm-Up! Happy November!. November 2 nd Get out your workbooks. Answer #1-13 on page 315- write the questions!!!!! I will collect these for a grade!. DNA Replication. http://kancrn.kckps.org/science/biology/Heredity_files/tdc02_vid_dnaanimation_300.mov.

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warm up happy november
Warm-Up! Happy November!

November 2nd

  • Get out your workbooks.
  • Answer #1-13 on page 315- write the questions!!!!!
  • I will collect these for a grade!
dna replication

DNA Replication

http://kancrn.kckps.org/science/biology/Heredity_files/tdc02_vid_dnaanimation_300.mov

when you are done with your warm up
When you are done with your warm-up

You need a blank sheet of paper

DNA replication/RNA GO notes

dna replication1
DNA Replication
  • During DNA replication, the DNA molecule separates into two strands, then produces two new complimentary strands following the rules of base pairing (Chargaff Rules).
  • Each strand of DNA serves as a template, or model, for the new strand.
how it occurs
How It Occurs
  • DNA replication is carried out by a series of enzymes.
  • The enzyme (helicase) unzip the DNA molecule creating two strands that serve as templates.
  • Complimentary bases are added to the strands by DNA polymerase.
replication continued
Replication Continued
  • Each new DNA molecule has one new stand and one strand from the original molecule.
  • The enzyme DNA polymerase, the principal enzyme, “proofreads” the new DNA strands, helping to maximize the odds that each molecule is a perfect copy of the original.
dna replication video
DNA Replication Video
  • http://www.copernicusproject.ucr.edu/ssi/HSBiologyResources.htm
dna replication3
DNA Replication
  • Review: Make the Complement:

ATCTAAGCAGGTA

TAGATTCGTCCAT

make the complement
Make the complement:

TACGGGATACCGAT

ATGCCCTATGGCTA

dna replication4
DNA Replication

Synthesis:

To Make

DNA Synthesis:

To make DNA

replication
Replication
  • To Make a Copy
slide14

Why?

    • For new cells
  • When?
    • Interphase
  • Where?
    • Nucleus
  • How?
    • DNA Polymerase comes in and makes a copy.
step 1
Step 1:
  • Find a DNA Molecule

A = T

T = A

C = G

G = C

step 3 complement strands are made
Step 3: Complement Strands are made

A T A T

T A T A

C G C G

G C G C

result
Result?
  • Replication makes a copy
what s the problem
What’s the problem?
  • DNA cannot leave the nucleus
mrna trna rrna
mRNA tRNA rRNA
  • Brings amino acids to the ribosome to match up with the message the mRNA just brought.
  • Makes up the ribosome.
  • Changes the DNA message to RNA inside of the nucleus and brings that message to the ribosome.
warm up 9
Warm-up #9
  • Complete the chart side ONLY.
  • Replication row only.
slide29
RNA!

Flip GO Sheet!

slide30
RNA=
  • Ribonucleic Acid
nucleotide
Nucleotide
  • Sugar ribose
  • Phosphate group
  • Nitrogen Base
3 nitrogen bases
3. Nitrogen Bases
  • Adenine
  • Guanine
  • Cytosine
  • **Uracil **
complementary bases
Complementary Bases
  • A= ______
  • C = ______
  • A=U
  • C=G
  • G=C
  • T=A
  • So if you see “U” is it DNA or RNA?
rna is made by
RNA is made by…
  • TRANSCRIPTION
  • DNA RNA
3 types of rna
3 types of RNA
  • the Messenger, mRNA
    • mRNA is an intermediate copy of genetic information that guides protein synthesis in the cell's protein synthesis machinery, called the ribosome
  • the Ribosomal, rRNA (the machinery)
    • rRNA is an essential component of the ribosome
  • the Transfer, tRNA (the carrier)
    • tRNA carries amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis.
transcription
TRANSCRIPTION
  • DNA RNA
  • Where?
      • Nucleus
transcription1
Transcription

DNA- A T C G T A T C A

RNA-

RNA- U A G C A U A G U

transcription2
TRANSCRIPTION
  • DNA- T A C C G A T C C C A T C
  • RNA- ?
  • RNA- A U G G C U A G G G U A G
transcription3
TRANSCRIPTION
  • DNA- G A C C C G T C A T C C G G T A A T
  • RNA-?
  • RNA- C U G G G C A G U A G G C C A U U A
slide46
RNA

DNA

  • Deoxyribonucelic acid
  • _____ strands
  • Deoxyribose
  • Bases- A=T; G=C
  • Made by replication
  • Cannot leave the nucleus
  • Ribonucleic Acid
  • _____ strand
  • Ribose
  • Bases- A=U; C=G
  • Made by transcription
  • Nucleus-> ribosome
protein love
Protein Love…
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJxobgkPEAo
3 types of rna1
3 types of RNA
  • the Messenger, mRNA
    • mRNA is an intermediate copy of genetic information that guides protein synthesis in the cell's protein synthesis machinery, called the ribosome
  • the Ribosomal, rRNA (the machinery)
    • rRNA is an essential component of the ribosome
  • the Transfer, tRNA (the carrier)
    • tRNA carries amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis.
warm up 10 define the following not handing in warm ups today either tuesday or wednesday
Warm-up #10 Define the following:(not handing in warm-ups today- either Tuesday or Wednesday!
  • Nucleotide
  • Base pairing
  • Replication
  • Gene
  • tRNA
  • mRNA
  • rRNA
  • Transcription
  • Codon
  • Anti-codon
  • Translation
warm up 11
Warm-up #11
  • 12. Transformation
  • 13. Bacteriophage
  • 14. Mutation
  • 15. Frameshift mutation
  • 16. Differentiation
  • 17. Point Mutation
  • 18. Polyploidy
  • 19. Hox Genes
review
Review:
  • RNA
  • Bases-
    • A,U,C,G
  • Process-
    • Transcription

DNA

  • Bases-
    • A,T,C,G
  • Process-
    • Replication
slide55
JOB:
  • To make a…
    • Protein (aka polypeptide)
process
Process
  • TRANSLATION!
slide58

Translation

To make a protein by joining together amino acids.

RNA Amino acids (Protein)

how to find out what amino acids to use
How to find out what amino acids to use?
  • Use Chart
  • Use Codons

See chart. Play baseball! 1st, 2nd, 3rd base.

codon
Codon
  • Set of 3 nitrogen bases used to code for amino acids.
let s practice use your chart
Let’s practice! (use your chart)
  • CAU= His
  • UUA=Leu
  • CCC=Pro
  • UUU=Phe
  • GAA=Glu
  • CGC=Arg
so what if you have cat
So, what if you have CAT?
  • What is the amino acid?
  • Gua- Valine
  • What about…
  • TAG= Ile
  • ATC= Stop
  • GTT= Gin
  • AAA= Phe
on the back of your rna chart
ON THE BACK OF YOUR RNA CHART….
  • SUMMARIZE, IN YOUR OWN WORDS, HOW ALL THREE RNAS WORK TOGETHER TO CREATE A PROTEIN.
  • I WILL SEND YOU BACK TO YOUR SEAT IF YOU COPY STRAIGHT FROM THE BOOK!
warm up november 3 rd
Warm-Up: November 3rd

1. Draw the different steps to DNA replication and explain each one.

2. Create a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting DNA and RNA (need at least 5 things in each circle)

3. Explain what happens during transcription.

4. What are the nitrogenous base pairs for RNA? How are these different from DNA?

5. Explain the steps A-D for translation on pg. 304-305 in your book.

we love translation
WE LOVE TRANSLATION!
  • http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=60707&title=Protein_Synthesis_Animation
remember
REMEMBER:

RNA

Ribose

1 strand

A=U C=G

Transcription

Nucleus Ribosomes

DNA

  • Deoxyribose
  • 2 strands
  • A=T C=G
  • Replication
  • Cannot leave nucleus
slide68

A= T (DNA)

  • A=U (RNA)
  • C=G (DNA/RNA)
3 parts of a nucleotide
3 Parts of a Nucleotide
  • Sugar
  • Phosphate
  • Nitrogen bases
replication1
Replication

A T C C A T G A A C T A T A G

T A G G T A C T T G A T A T C

transcription4
TRANSCRIPTION

A T C C A T G A A C T A T A G

UA G G U A C U U G A U A U C

translate
TRANSLATE

U A G G U A C U U G A U A U C

protein monomer
Protein Monomer
  • Amino Acid
codon1
Codon:

Set of 3 nitrogen bases; codes for an amino acid.

translation
Translation
  • RNA Protein
example
Example:

A C U G U U C A U

1. DIVIDE INTO CODONS….

example codons 3 s
Example: CODONS= 3’S

A C U G U U C A U

slide80

A C U G U U C A U-RNA

  • FIND THE PROTEIN…
  • Thr-Val-His
example 1
Example 1

DNA-

TACGAACCCGTACAAACT

RNA-

AUGCUUGGGCAUGUUUGA

PROTEIN-

Met-Leu-Gly-His-Val-Stop

example 2
Example 2

DNA-

GCACGGGGGCTTGGACT

RNA-

CGUGCCCCCGAACCUGAG

PROTEIN-

Arg-Ala-Pro-Glu-Pro-Glu

example 3
Example 3

DNA-

CAAATCGTTAAATAG

RNA-

GUUUAGCAAUUUAUC

PROTEIN-

Val-Stop

review1
Review:

Make the DNA COMPLEMENT:

CATGACTTAATGCGA

transcribe it
TRANSCRIBE IT
  • CATGACTTAATGCGA
translate it
TRANSLATE IT
  • CATGACTTAATGCGA
3 types of rna2
3 TYPES OF RNA
  • mRNA- messenger
  • rRNA- ribosomal
  • tRNA- transfer
1 point mutation
1. Point Mutation
  • Substitutes a nitrogen base
  • Changes 1 amino acid
  • Example?
  • Sickle cell anemia
slide91

Fig. 5.1 (a) Point mutation in codon number six of the beta -globin gene results in the substitution of the amino acid number glutamine with valine and the formation of haemoglobin S (HbS); (b) Red blood cells in a smear of normal blood containing HbA; (c) crenated and sickle-shaped red blood cells in sickle cell anaemia.

2 frameshift mutation
2. Frameshift Mutation

Delete/insert

Changes all of the amino acids.

Example?

slide94

Fig 5.7. Deletion of a single nucleotide completely alters the subsequent reading frame and results in a non-sense sequence of amino acids.

slide95

Fig 5.8. Insertion of 4 bp in the hexoseaminidase gene results in a frame shift mutation causing Tay Sach's disease.

slide96

“THE DOG BIT THE CAT”

  • MAKE A POINT MUTATION.
  • “THE DOG BIT THE CAR”
slide97

“THE DOG BIT THE CAT”

  • MAKE A FRAMSHIFT MUTATION
  • TED OGB ITT HEC AT___
chromosomal mutations
Chromosomal Mutations
  • Deletion
  • Duplication
  • Inversion
  • Translocation
deletion
Deletion
  • The consequences of a deletion depends on the size of the missing segment and which genes are found on it. A partial deletion on the short arm (p) of chromosome 5, for example, is responsible for the "cri du chat" syndrome
duplication
Duplication
  • A chromosome duplication is the doubling of a chromosome piece. A duplication is sometimes termed a "partial trisomy". If, therefore, a duplication is present, the person is equipped with 3 copies of the genes in the associated chromosome segment. This means that extra directions (genes) are present, leading to congenital abnormalities or developmental problems.
inversion
Inversion
  • If chromosome pieces that have been broken out become inserted again, but reversed, an inversion has occurred.
  • The phenotype of this disorder is usually unobtrusive, since the entire chromosomal information is still present. When the interchanged region includes the centromere, one refers to it as a pericentric inversion, otherwise to a paracentric inversion.
translocation
Translocation
  • A chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
slide103

Say It With DNA Worksheet!

  • Use a separate sheet of paper!!!
dna mini lab
DNA Mini Lab

Complete mini lab on your own and then complete Pg. 315 #14-25 in complete sentences.