Chapter 11. Personality: Theory and Measurement. Introduction to Personality. Personality = stable patterns of emotions, motives, and behavior that distinguish one person from another. Theories of Personality: Psychodynamic Perspective.
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Personality: Theory and Measurement
Figure 11.1The Human Iceberg According to Freud According to psychodynamic theory, only the tip of human personality rises above the surface of the mind into conscious awareness. Material in the preconscious can become conscious if we direct our attention to it. Unconscious material tends to remain shrouded in mystery.
Figure 11.2Eysenck’s Personality Dimensions and Hippocrates’ Personality Types Various personality traits shown in the outer ring fall within the two major dimensions of personality suggested by Hans Eysenck. The inner circle shows how Hippocrates’ four major personality types—choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic, and melancholic—fit within Eysenck’s dimensions.
Figure 11.3Person Variables and Situational Variables in Social–Cognitive Theory According to social–cognitive theory, person variables and situational variables interact to influence behavior.
Figure 11.5 TheoryA Rorschach Inkblot The Rorschach is the most widely used projective personality test. What does this inkblot look like to you? What could it be?