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Germanic Kingdoms Unite Under Charlemagne. Ch. 13 sec. 1 pg. 317. The Middle Ages. There was a gradual decline of Roman Empire This ushered in a new era in European history called the Middle Ages, or medieval period Lasted from 500-1500

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Germanic Kingdoms Unite Under Charlemagne

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the middle ages
The Middle Ages
  • There was a gradual decline of Roman Empire
  • This ushered in a new era in European history called the Middle Ages, or medieval period
  • Lasted from 500-1500
  • New institutions slowly replaced those of the fallen Roman Empire
invasions start changes in western europe
Invasions Start Changes in Western Europe
  • By the end of the 400’s Germanic tribes overran the western half of Roman empire
  • Remember the empire was spilt in 2
  • Remember Attila the Hun? He was the leader of one of the Germanic groups who terrorized the Western part of the Empire
constant warfare sparked
Constant warfare sparked:
  • Disruption of trade- businesses collapsed and breakdown of trade destroyed European cities, money became scarce
  • Downfall of cities- cities were abandoned
  • Population shifts- nobles retreated to rural areas, and Rome left with no strong government, others fleeing to countryside to grow own food
decline of learning
Decline of Learning
  • Germanic invaders couldn’t read or write
  • Learning among Romans sank as well as more families move to rural areas
  • People like priests and church officials were literate
  • Traditional reading of Roman and Greek philosophy and science stopped
  • Germanic tribes had oral traditions of songs and legends, but no written language
  • As they mixed with the Roman population, Latin began to change
  • It wasn’t understood from region to region
  • New dialects, words and phrases began to develop
  • By 800s French, Spanish, and other Romance languages developed
germanic kingdoms emerge
Germanic Kingdoms emerge
  • Borders and government change as Germanic kingdoms replace Roman provinces
the role of the church
The role of the Church
  • Church was the only institution that survived
  • During time of political chaos, Church provided order and security
germanic governing
Germanic Governing
  • Roman society believed in loyalty to the public government and respect written law
  • Germanic society believed in personal loyalty and family ties rather than citizenship in public state
  • Germanic people lived in small communities
  • They were governed by unwritten rules and traditions
Germanic chief’s led a band of warriors who pledged loyalty to their leader
  • Would fight to their death for leader
  • Was considered a disgrace to outlive their leader
  • Had no obligation to obey a king they didn’t know or pay taxes collected by a city official
  • Stress on person ties made it impossible to establish an orderly government for large territories
the franks under clovis
The Franks under Clovis
  • In the Roman province of Gaul, Germanic people called the Franks held power
  • Their leader, Clovis, brings Christianity to this region
  • Clovis’s wife, Clothilde had begged him to convert
  • In battle, Clovis saw the possibility of death for himself and his soldiers, and prayed to the Christian God
  • Clovis and his men won the battle and were baptized
  • Church welcomed his conversion and supported his military against other Germanic people
  • United Franks under one kingdom and formed a special partnership with the church
germanic peoples adopt christianity
Germanic Peoples Adopt Christianity
  • Frankish rulers and missionaries spread Christianity
  • To adapt to rural conditions, Churches built monasteries , or religious communities
  • Christian men called monks gave up private possessions and became servants of God
  • Women became nuns and lived in convents
In 520, Benedict, a monk wrote a strict set of rules for monasteries

His twin sister, Scholastica headed a convent and adopted the same set of rules for women

a pope in control
A Pope in Control
  • Gregory I, known as Gregory the Great, became pope in 590
  • He took authority of political affairs as well as church affairs
  • Used church revenues to build an army, repair roads and feed the poor
  • The idea of a churchly kingdom , ruled by a pope would become a central theme in the Middle Ages
  • After Roman Empire dissolved, tiny kingdoms sprang up all over Europe
  • England had 7 tiny kingdoms
  • Some kingdoms were no larger than Connecticut
The area of the State covers 4845 square miles

It is the third smallest state in the U.S.

Arizona is the sixth largest state and covers 113,642 square miles- roughly twenty two times the size of Connecticut

Under Clovis, the Franks control the largest and strongest kingdom-former Roman province Gaul

By the time Clovis died in 511, he had extended rule over what is now France

He strengthened the Merovingian Dynasty, named after his ancestor

major domo
Major Domo
  • By 700, official named major domo (mayor of the palace) had become most powerful person in kingdom
  • Officially, he had charge of royal and household estates
  • Unofficially, he commanded armies and made policies
  • You could say mayor of the palace ruled the kingdom
charles martel
Charles Martel

In 719, Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) was named mayor of the palace, and had more power than the king

Extended Franks power to the north, south and east

Defeated Muslim raiding from Spain at the Battle of Tours

Victory made him a Christian hero

A loss would have meant Europe could have become part of the Muslim Empire

pepin the short
Pepin the Short
  • After Charles’ s death, he passed on power to son Pepin the Short
  • Pepin wanted to become king- but it was not in his blood line
  • With Pope’s permission he deposed the last Merovingian king
  • Pope declared him “king by the grace of God” after fighting on the Church’s behalf
  • This began the reign of Frankish rulers called the Carolingian Dynasty
carolingian dynasty
Carolingian Dynasty
  • Pepin the Short died and left a greatly strengthened kingdom to his two sons, Carloman and Charles (Charlemagne)
  • After Carloman’s death, Charles (Charlemagne) took control of the kingdom
  • He was 6’4 and an imposing figure
  • Built an empire larger as any since the Roman empire (this was before the Mongols expansion)
  • Every summer he would take his army to fight enemies surrounding his kingdom
  • Fought Muslims in Spain and other Germanic tribes
  • Spread Christianity while conquering new lands
roman emperor
Roman Emperor
  • In 800, Charlemagne traveled to Rome to crush an unruly mob that attacked the Pope
  • Pope Leo was so grateful that he crowned Charlemagne emperor
  • The coronation was historic- a pope had claimed the right to award the title “Roman Emperor” to a European king
  • Event signaled the joining of Germanic power, the Church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire
charlemagne s government
Charlemagne’s Government
  • Strengthened royal power by limiting noble power
  • Sent out royal agents to make sure those ruling their counties did so justly
  • Charlemagne would visit every part of his kingdom regularly
  • He judged cases, settled disputes and rewarded faithful followers
importance of learning
Importance of Learning
  • One of Charlemagne’s greatest accomplishments was his praise of learning
  • Surrounded himself with scholars of all languages
  • Opened a palace school for his children and others
  • Ordered monasteries to open schools and train future monks and priests
In 814 Charlemagne died after ruling for over 40 years
  • He had inflammation in the lungs and chest and tried to cure himself by only drinking liquids, but died 7 days later
louis the pious
Louis the Pious
  • Charlemagne crowned his only son Louis the Pious emperor a year before his death
  • Louis would have been a better monk, and is ineffective as a ruler
  • Louis had 3 sons: Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Lewis the German
All 3 of Charlemagne’s grandsons fight each other for control of the empire
  • A civil war takes place and ends when the brothers signed the Treaty of Verdun, dividing the empire into 3 kingdoms
After the treaty Carolingian kings lost power
  • Central authority breaks down
  • The lack of strong rulers leads to a new system of governing and land holding- feudalism
  • (9:00)
  • (5:00)
  • Create a family tree of the Carolingian Dynasty starting with

Charles Martel




Louis the Pious

Charles the Bald


the German