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Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms PowerPoint Presentation
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Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms

Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms

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Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms

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  1. Mr. Morris World History Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms

  2. Key Terms, Ch. 13.1 pg. 353 • Middle Ages • Franks • Monastery • Secular • Carolingian Dynasty • Charlemagne

  3. The Middle Ages • After the fall of the Roman Empire, the period called the Middle Ages began in Europe • Lasted from 500 to 1500 • During this time a new society began to emerge that was rooted in • The classical heritage of Rome • The beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church • Customs of Germanic tribes

  4. Invasions of Western Europe • Following the invasion and constant warfare in Rome, several things happened in Europe • Disruption of trade – people couldn’t sell things because of all the fighting; money became very scarce • Downfall of cities – After Rome fell, cities were abandoned • Population shifts – The majority of the population in Europe moved from cities to the countryside

  5. The Decline of Learning • Those who took over Rome were unable to read or write • As people left the cities, education took a sharp decline • Most people became illiterate and the Greek language was nearly lost • The Germanic people who had invaded Rome were storytellers, but had no written language

  6. Loss of a Common Language • As Germans mixed with Romans, Latin changed and was harder to understand • Eventually, many new languages had developed out of what was once Latin • Romance languages • Signified the breakup of the empire

  7. Germanic Kingdoms Emerge • For 200 years, Roman provinces were replaced by Germanic kingdoms whose borders were constantly changing • Rome had fallen, but the church remained strong and was what many people looked to for guidance and security

  8. The Concept of Government Changes • In Rome, loyalty to public government and written laws had kept society united • Germanic society was governed by family ties and personal loyalty • Unwritten rules and traditions • Germanic chiefs led armies that pledged loyalty to him • Gave his soldiers food, treasure, and weapons • No respect for kings or officials • Hard to create a government for large territories

  9. Clovis Rules the Franks • Franks had power in Gaul (France & Switzerland) • Clovis was their leader and converted to Christianity after a battle that he won after asking for God’s help • The Church supported Clovis in the rest of his campaigns • The partnership between Clovis and the Church was the beginning of a powerful relationship

  10. Germans Adopt Christianity • Many Germanic people had converted to Christianity by 600 • Most had settled in lands that used to belong to Rome • Christianity also spread by missionaries • Many converted because of the fear of being invaded by Muslims

  11. Monasteries, Convents, and Manuscripts • Monasteries were built in rural areas • Religious communities where men called monks would give up everything they owned and devote themselves to serving God • Women were nuns and lived in convents • Benedict & Scholastica implemented a set of rules for monasteries & convents • Monasteries became the best educated communities in Europe • Opened schools, maintained libraries, copied books

  12. Papal Power Expands Under Gregory I • Gregory I (or Gregory the Great) became Pope in 590 • Expanded power of the Pope beyond its religious role • Pope became a political power • Used church money to build roads, raise armies, and help the poor • Gregory felt that all the churches across the continent fell under his control • Spiritual kingdom

  13. An Empire Evolves • After Rome, Europe split into many small kingdoms • Franks controlled the largest and strongest kingdom in Gaul • Clovis had extended Frankish power to cover almost all of modern day France

  14. Charles Martel Emerges • Major domo – mayor of the palace – most important person in the Frankish kingdom • Led armies and made laws • 719 – Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) held more power than the king • Extended Frankish reign in almost every direction • Defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Tours – 732 • Made Charles a Christian hero for holding off Muslim rule • Charles passed power to his son, Pepin the Short when he died and Pepin became known as “king by the grace of God,” starting the Carolingian Dynasty that would rule for the next 250 years

  15. Charlemagne Becomes Emperor • Pepin’s son Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, took over after Pepin’s death • Very imposing figure – 6’ 4” • Ruled for 47 years, doubled the size of the kingdom

  16. Charlemagne Extends Frankish Rule • Built the greatest empire other than ancient Rome • Led armies against enemies surrounding the kingdom each summer • Spread Christianity in the process • United western Europe for the first time since Rome’s fall • In 800, crowned “Roman emperor” by the pope • Joined the Germanic people, the Church, and Rome’s heritage

  17. Charlemagne Leads a Revival • Strengthened himself by limiting power of nobles • Made sure that counts governed fairly • Regularly visited all parts of the kingdom • Encouraged learning, opening a school at his palace and ordering monasteries to open schools for training future monks and priests

  18. Charlemagne’s Heirs • After Charlemagne’s death, the kingdom was ruled ineffectively • Charlemagne’s grandchildren divided the Frankish empire into three different kingdoms • Dynasty lost power and the power of the central authority broke down