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  1. Germanic

  2. Verbal Inflection Indo-European Germanic present present past past future perfect aorist past perfect

  3. Strong and weak verb forms Strong verbs Weak verbs sing walk sang walked sung walked

  4. Adjective Declension weak adjectives strong adjectives sē gōda mann gōd mann ‘(the) good man’ ‘(a) good man’

  5. First Germanic Sound Shift *p t k  f T x/h *b d g  p t k *bh dh gh  b d g

  6. Second Germanic Sound Shift hate hassen eat essen let lassen grip greifen deep tief sleep schlafen time Zeit tongue Zunge ten zehn that das there da through durch pan Pfanne path Pfad pole Pfahl

  7. Old English

  8. Celtic world 1200 B.C:

  9. Roman Empire 1st/2nd century

  10. 410 Romans leave Britain 449 Beginning of the Anglo-Saxon Invasion

  11. Anglo-Saxon Invasion

  12. Bede: Ecclesiastical History of the English Language (731)

  13. Anglo-Saxon Invasion

  14. Anglo-Saxon settlements

  15. Celtic loan words London Thames Duncombe cumb ‘deep valley’ Holcombe Winchcombe Torr torr ‘high rock’, ‘peak’ Torcross Torhill bin

  16. Old English Kingdoms

  17. King Alfred the Great 871-899

  18. The christianizing of the Anglo-Saxons (597) Saint Augustine

  19. Early loan words from Latin wall win street pea pit flasce mile chalk pepper copper butter bishop onion dragon plum churc h

  20. Canterbury Cathedral

  21. Religious loan words from Latin angel anthem disciple martyr noon nun offer pope priest psalm rule relic temple shrine

  22. Religious words of Germanic origin God Easter heaven hell

  23. Latin loans: clothing, household, food cap pear sock radish silk oyster purple lobster chest cook

  24. Other Latin loan words school plant place box anchor lily sponge pine

  25. The Viking Age

  26. Viking attacks on Europe

  27. Battle at Edington 878

  28. Loan words from Old Norse law leg neck bag cake egg fellow dirt fog knife window sky skin skirt angersister [sweaster]

  29. Loan words from Old Norse take [niman] die get cast give cut [sniðan] raise smile call drag want lift

  30. Loan words from Old Norse flat loose low odd ugly wrong tight weak awkward rotten

  31. Loan words from Old Norse they though their till them same (she) both are [syndon]

  32. Loan words from Old Norse Grimsby –by ‘farm’ Derby Thoresby Althorpe –thorpe ‘village’ Bishopsthorpe Linthorpe

  33. [sk] shirt skirt shoe skip shelf scare shine scarf

  34. The Battle of Maldon 991

  35. Svein (King of Denmark) Æthelred (King of England) Cnut (King of Denmark and England 1014-1042)

  36. The Lord's Prayer Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum; Si þin nama gehalgod To becume þin rice Gewurþe ðin willa On eorðan swa swa on heofonum. Urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todæg And forgyf us ure gyltas Swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum And ne gelæd þu us on costnunge Ac alys us of yfele soþlice

  37. Beowulf

  38. Beowulf Hwæt! We Gardena         in geardagum, þeodcyninga,         þrym gefrunon, hu ða æþelingas         ellen fremedon. Oft Scyld Scefing         sceaþena þreatum, monegum mægþum,         meodosetla ofteah, egsode eorlas. LO, praise of the prowess of people-kingsof spear-armed Danes, in days long sped,we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!Oft Scyld the Scefing from squadroned foes,from many a tribe, the mead-bench tore,awing the earls.

  39. The Battle of Maldon Then he ordered each of his warriors his horse to looseFar off to send it and forth to go,To be mindful of his hands and of his high heart.

  40. The Battle of Maldon Then did Offa's Kinsman first knowThat the earl would not brook cowardice,Loosed he from his hands his darling to fly,His Hawk to the wood, and to the battle strode.

  41. The Battle of Maldon From that one could tell that the chieftain would neverWeaken in the warfare - when he his weapons seized.

  42. The Battle of Maldon And after him Edric chose his chief to follow,His friend in the fight - then 'gan he forth to bearThe spear to the strife - high spirit had he,So long as he with his hands to hold was ableHis buckler and broadsword; his boast he fulfilledThat he by his friend's side should fight.

  43. The Battle of Maldon Then did Brithnoth begin his men to bestow -He rode up and counselled them - his soldiers he taughtHow they should stand, and their standing to keep,And bade them their round shields rightly to holdFast to their forearms, that they flinch not at all.

  44. Spelling þ [ð or T] thorn ð [ð or T] eth æ [{] ash Z [Z or g] yogh S [s or z] c [k] sc [S]

  45. Vowels Macron hīe ‘they’ hū ‘how’ Tense vs. lax vowels heat [i] hit [I] to [u] took [U]

  46. Consonants