بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم. Micronutrients Vitamins and Minerals. Dr. Mahmoud Sirdah. Classes of Nutrients. Macronutrients Carbohydrate Protein Lipids Water Micronutrients Vitamins Minerals. Vitamins and minerals are called micronutrients because we only need them in very small amounts.
vital and amine
because vitamins are required for life and were originally thought to be amines.
Vitamins Bioavailability = amount available + amount absorbed
Two Classifications of Vitamins
Retinalis the key molecule involved in vision and responsible for converting the energy in light photons into electrical impulses in the retina
(ضخامة و تقرن جريبات شعر الجلد), a condition in which hair follicles become plugged with keratin, giving a bumpy appearance and a rough, dry texture to skin.
None of the forms of vitamin are easily excreted, so toxicity is a risk for those with kidney disease or as people age.
Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is obtained from plants.
• Vitamin D3 is cholecalciferol derived from animal products
Calcitriol (Active hormone form of vitamin D)
5-15 min Sunlight/week
Osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults
Deficiency: Children = Ricket’s Disease
Adults = Osteomalacia
Calcium absorption; Blood Calcium = bone deficiency
Toxicity: 10x RDA
Calcium absorption; Blood Calcium = Calcium deposits on soft tissue
eg kidney stones
RDA: 5 μg/dl 5 μg/dl (19-30 yrs)
Water Soluble Vitamins
Release energy from
Limited absorption and little increase in blood concentration
Rec for Men Smokers
Rec for Women Smokers
These vitamins are widely distributed in foods. Their influence is felt in many parts of the body.
They function as coenzymes that help the body obtain energy from food.
They also are important for normal appetite, good vision, healthy skin, healthy nervous system and red blood cell formation.
Beriberi, pellagra and pernicious anemia are three well-known B-vitamin deficiencies.
These diseases are not a problem in the United States, but occasionally they occur when people omit certain foods or overeat certain foods at the expense of others.
Thiamin deficiency causes beriberi, which is frequently seen in parts of the world where polished (white) rice or unenriched white flour are predominantly eaten.