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Unit 1: Industries, Texts & Audiences. 1.1:How the Media Industry is structured. What Makes Up The Media Industries?. New Media. Broadcasting. Press. Cinema. Advertising. How The Media Industry is Structured. Overview / Background history Who owns what?

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unit 1 industries texts audiences

Unit 1: Industries, Texts & Audiences

1.1:How the Media Industry is structured.

what makes up the media industries
What Makes Up The Media Industries?

New Media





how the media industry is structured
How The Media Industry is Structured.
  • Overview / Background history
  • Who owns what?
  • Scope and objectives of operations.
  • Regulations of the industry
  • Range of products - within and across organisations.
Horizontal Integration
    • The acquisition of competitors in the same section of the industry.
  • Vertical Integration
    • The ownership of every stage of the production process (i.e.: Production + distribution + exhibition), thereby ensuring complete control of a media product)
  • www.mediachannel.org/ownership/granville.shtml
  • www.thenation.com/special/bigten.html
  • www.thenation.com/special/2006_entertainment.pdf
the film industry1
The Film Industry
  • Golden Age of Hollywood & Studio System
  • Big Six
  • Mergers & Monopolies
  • Products
  • Vertical/horizontal integration
golden age of hollywood
Golden Age of Hollywood
  • 1920s-1950s - The Studio System
  • Film companies:
    • Producing movies primarily on their own film lots with creative staff on long term contracts
    • Pursuing ‘vertical integration’ through ownership/control of distribution & Theatres.
8 Major Studios:
    • MGM, Paramount, RKO, Warner, Fox, United Artists, Columbia, Universal
  • Paramount Case 1948
    • Studio System scheme was in violation of the Antitrust (Competition) laws of America
    • Forced separation of movie production and exhibition companies.
six majors in film
Six Majors in Film
  • 20th Century Fox
  • Time Warner
  • Beuna Vista Motion Pictures(owned by Walt Disney)
    • Pixar, Miramax, Touchstone
  • Paramount(owned by Viacom)
    • Dreamworks, United International Pictures[joint venture with Universal Studios] MTV, Nickelodeon.
NBC Universal(owned by General Electric & Vivendi)
    • Universal International Pictures
    • Working Title [London]
  • Sony Pictures Entertainments
    • Columbia Tristar, Jim Henson,
    • MGM (Metro Goldwyn Mayer)
warner bros
Warner Bros

“A fully integrated, broad-based entertainment company…”

“ A global leader in the creation, production, distribution, licensing & marketing of all forms of creative content across all current and emerging media and platforms…

“Standing at the forefront of every aspect of the entertainment industry from feature film , TV, & home entertainment production and worldwide distribution to DVD, digital distribution to, animation, comic book s, licensing , international cinemas and broadcasting.”

Established by the 4 Warner brothers in 1923
  • 1st synchronized sound feature film “The Jazz Singer” - 1927
  • Subsidiary of AOL Time Warner
    • Revenue $31.8 billion
  • Divisions include:
    • Motion Picture, TV, Home Entertainment Group, Consumer Products, DC Comics, Theatre, Cinema.
regulation film industry
REGULATION: Film Industry
  • United States antitrust law
    • prohibits anti-competitive behavior (monopoly) and unfair business practices.
Production Code of America (Hays Code)
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Production_Code
  • 3 Principals:
    • Not to lower moral standards
    • Present correct standards of life
    • Law should not be ridiculed
  • Abandoned in 1967; replaced by MPAA Film Classifications:
    • G. PG. PG-13. 17. NC-17
    • http://www.mpaa.org/FlmRat_Ratings.asp

Local National

Tabloid Broadsheet

Dailies Sundays

news international
  • Industry: Newspapers
  • UK Brands:
news international1
News International
  • 4 National Newspapers
  • 1 local newspaper - ‘The London Paper’
  • Parent Company: News Corporation
    • Revenue $13.5 billion
regulation press
  • Self Regulation
    • Voluntary code - PCC
    • www.pcc.org.uk
  • Legal control
    • Libel
    • Jepordise State Security
    • ‘Prejudice a Fair Trial’
  • Campaign for Press & Broadcasting Freedom
    • www.cpbf.org.uk
competition commission
Competition Commission

Role of the CC

The Competition Commission (CC) is one of the independent public bodies which help ensure healthy competition between companies in the UK for the benefit of companies, customers and the economy. The CC replaced the Monopolies and Mergers Commission in 1999.

  • (Author Surname, date of work)

Citation of entire works

  • (Author Surname, Date of Work, page no.)

Quotations from works


It is through a semiotic approach to the interpretation of photography that it can be shown to create an impression of the irrefutable and natural from what is really a matter of interpretation and cultural attitudes (Barthes 1973)


“Flaherty, despite Nanook, seems never to have understood how films are made and never created any alternative to the normative practices of which he remained in ignorance.” (Winston 1995 p.109)


Include ALL books, Journals, Magazines, Websites, Films.



Author Surname, Initial. (date of publication). Title. Place of Publication: Publisher

Barthes, R. (1993). Camera Lucidia. New York; Vintage


Essik, K., (2000) ‘France Hammers Yahoo’, The Industry Standard (Europe), 23 Nov 2000


Film Council (2000). The Structure of the Film Council [online], London Available from http://www.filmcouncil.org.uk/about/structure.html (accessed 20 Dec 2000)