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CHAPTER 12 MOTIVATION PowerPoint Presentation
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CHAPTER 12 MOTIVATION

CHAPTER 12 MOTIVATION

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CHAPTER 12 MOTIVATION

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  1. CHAPTER 12MOTIVATION © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  2. Lecture outline • Nature of motivation • Needs theories • Cognitive theories • Reinforcement theory • Social learning theory © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  3. Nature of motivation Motivationis the force energising or, giving direction to, behaviour. It is a complex interaction of behaviours, needs, rewards/reinforcement and cognitive activities. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  4. Nature of motivation performance environmental conditions ability motivation x X = © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  5. Needs theories • Hierarchy of needs theory (Maslow) • Two-factor theory (Herzberg) • ERG theory (Aldefer) • Acquired needs theory (McClelland) © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  6. Needs theories Hierarchy of needs theory (Maslow): • Theory arguing that individual needs form a five-level hierarchy. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  7. Needs theories Self-actualisation Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  8. Needs theories Two-factor theory (Herzberg) Herzberg’s theory that hygiene factors are necessary to keep workers from feeling dissatisfied but, only motivators can lead workers to feel satisfied and motivated. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  9. Needs theories Hygiene factors Motivators Pay Working Conditions Supervisors Company Policies Fringe benefits Achievement Responsibility Work itself Recognition Growth Advancement These factors promote satisfaction. These factors help prevent dissatisfaction. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  10. Needs theories ERG theory (Aldefer) Alternative to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, which argues that there are three levels of individual needs. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  11. Needs theories Relatedness needs Relationships with family, work and professional groups Existence needs Physiological (food, water) Pay Benefits Working conditions Growth needs Creativity Innovation Productivity Satisfaction-progression principle Frustration-regression principle © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  12. Needs theories Acquired needs theory (McClelland) Theory stating that our needs are acquired or learned on the basis of our life experiences. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  13. Needs theories Acquired needs theory Developed by David McClelland — cites the need for achievement, power, andaffiliation as major motives in work Need for achievement —drive to excel Need for power—influence others behaviour Need for affiliation—desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  14. Cognitive theories • Expectancy theory • Equity theory • Goal-setting theory © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  15. Cognitive theories Expectancy theory (Vroom) Theory arguing that we consider three main issues (effort-performance, performance-outcome, valence) before we expend effort necessary to perform at a given level. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  16. Cognitive theories • Effort-performance expectancy Our assessment of the probability our efforts will lead to the required level of performance. • Performance-outcome expectancy Our assessment of the probability our successful performance will lead to desired outcomes. • Valence Our assessment of anticipated value of various outcomes or rewards. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  17. Cognitive theories Equity theory (Adams) Theory arguing that we prefer situations of balance or, equity. Implications for managers: • Communication essential to assess equity/inequity perceptions in employees. • Complimentary to Expectancy theory. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  18. Cognitive theories Goal-setting theory Goal-setting theory [technique] works by focussing attention & action, mobilising effort, increasing persistence, & encouraging the development of strategy to achieve goals. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  19. Cognitive theories Reinforcement theory Theory arguing that our behaviour can be explained by consequences in the environment. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  20. Cognitive theories Types of reinforcement: • Positive Uses pleasant, rewarding consequences to encourage desired behaviour. Use of shaping. • Negative (unpleasant) stimuli so an individual will engage in the desired behaviour to stop the stimuli. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  21. Cognitive theories Types of reinforcement: • Extinction Stopping previously available positive outcomes from a behaviour to decrease the behaviour. • Punishment Providing negative consequences to decrease or discourage a behaviour. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  22. Reinforcement theory Fixed ratio: given after fixed number of cases of desired behaviour. High response rates, rapid extinguishment if stopped even temporarily. Using reinforcement theory: encourage desired behaviour, be clear on what is desired. Use variable interval & variable ratio reinforcement. Punish moderately severely & promptly. Fixed interval: given on fixed time schedule. Uneven responses, extinction rapid if reinforcement late, or stops Variable ratio: given on variable or random frequency of behaviour basis. High response rate, very slow extinguishment Variable interval: given on variable or random time basis. High, steady response rate, slow extinguishment, if stopped © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  23. Social learning theory Social learning theory (Bandura) Theory arguing that learning occurs through continuous reciprocal interaction of our behaviours, various personal factors and environmental forces. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  24. Social learning theory Learning occurs by continuous interaction between our behaviours, personal factors and environmental forces, viz: • Symbolic processes • Self-control/regulation • Vicarious learning. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  25. Lecture summary • Nature of motivation • Motivational process • Motivation& performance. • Needs theories • Hierarchy of needs • Two-factor • ERG • Acquired needs. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.

  26. Lecture summary • Cognitive theories • Expectancy • Equity • Goal-setting. • Reinforcement theory Positive, negative, extinction, punishment as reinforcement. • Social learning theory Symbolic processes, self-control, vicarious learning. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury.