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Ch. 12 Motivation. Defined – the desire to satisfy an unmet need. Expectations? Self-Fulfilling Prophecy? Performance equation? Content/Process/Reinforcement theories. Content theories A. Maslow’s Hierarchy. physiological, safety, social, esteem, self-actualization

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Defined – the desire to satisfy an unmet need.
  • Expectations?
  • Self-Fulfilling Prophecy?
  • Performance equation?
  • Content/Process/Reinforcement theories
content theories a maslow s hierarchy
Content theoriesA. Maslow’s Hierarchy
  • physiological, safety, social, esteem, self-actualization
  • use motivators that satisfy the next level need
  • once lower level needs are satisfied, they lose their motivating potential
  • implications: satisfy lower level needs so upper level needs are motivating. How do you know what needs are unmet? Survey
How to satisfy physiological?
    • AT&T gave money to childcare centers and gets first priority for its workers
  • How to satisfy safety?
    • IBM, Honeywell, Advanced Micro all wrote no layoff policies. Now they can address other needs. Xerox dealt with union to give job security, but reductions in salary. Delivery people (postmen/fedex/pizza drivers) are suffering violence: In one year there were 213 problems for postmen; Fedex employee killed, pizza deliverers reporting increases in assault.
How to satisfy social (sense of belonging)?
    • Use teams, picnics
  • How to satisfy esteem?
    • Perks of success (status, office, decision making) or simply a sense of self-efficacy. Unocal does creativity week for R&D folks for recognition. United Electric Controls uses valued employee program wherein they receive dollars for implemented idea.
  • How to safisfy self-actualization?
    • Opportunity to grow. Training?
b herzberg theory
B. Herzberg’ Theory
  • Theory names:

1. Motivation-hygiene theory

2. Two-factor theory

He asked employees when they think about their jobs, what makes them feel really good about their jobs and what makes them feel bad about their jobs. He came up with two groups: motivators (intrinsic factors) and hygiene factors (extrinsic factors).
    • What are examples of each?
Hygiene = salary/supervision/working conditions/policies
  • Motivators= characteristics of the work/advancement/responsibility/achievement
  • Then he came up with a perspective not previously considered:
    • Motivators can lead to satisfaction, but hygiene factors can only prevent dissatisfaction.
    • Thus, satisfaction is distinct from dissatisfaction:
hygiene factors present  no dissatisfaction  no grievance (or motivation)
  • hygiene factors not present  dissatisfaction  grievance
  • motivators present  satisfaction  motivated behavior
  • motivators not present  no satisfaction  no motivated behavior
Implication: ensure the presence of motivators in order to enhance aroused, energized, goal-directed behavior
c mcclelland s needs theory acquired needs theory
C. McClelland’s Needs Theory (Acquired Needs Theory)
  • 3-Needs Theory.
  • What are the 3 needs?
    • Need for achievement (desire to carry work to successful completion)
    • Need for Power (desire to influence others)
    • Need for Affiliation (desire to help others)
Research found that
    • salesmen high in NAch sold more policies than those low in NAch.
    • at Pepsi, high NAch led to more success than high NPowr. In general, the best managers are high in the NPowr and low in NAff.
  • Implications: address those individual needs that are most motivating for individuals.
Derived from cognitive dissonance

- What’s this?

Inconsistency between my beliefs/feelings and behaviors.

  • Unfairness (inequity perceptions)  cognitive dissonance  motivation to correct
  • How is equity perceived?

- By comparison to others

You Other

  • outcomesoutcomessalary, benefits, status, time off
  • inputs inputs effort, educ, training, exp.
What are some methods to reduce inequity perceptions?

Increase/reduce inputs

Increase/reduce outcomes

Distort inputs/outcomes of self/other

Change relevant other

Greenberg study – pay cut led to stealing; office size changes led to effort changes
  • Implications – establish perceptions of fairness/justice and understand where inequity perceptions exist.
b goal setting
B. Goal Setting
  • Difficult goals  increased performance up to a point (need to be achievable)
  • Specific goals  increased performance
  • Feedback following goals  increased performance
  • Participatively set goals  increased performance
  • Implications: establish goal setting procedures e.g. MBO!
- Expectancy (E-P link)

Motorola people get 40 hours training/year;

Anderson consulting gives new employees 3 weeks of professional training prior to starting their jobs. After this, 138 hours per year!

  • Instrumentality (P-O link)

Diamond International surveyed and found that employees were not rewarded for doing a good job. They instituted the 100 Club to reward certain levels of performance. Productivity boosted 14.2%!

  • Valence; (V – attractiveness)
What are the implications?

1. give employees appropriate training and encouragement;

2. communicate credible link between performance and outcome;

3. individual differences must be considered.

Positive works best
  • What gets measured gets done
team training
Team Training
  • What are objectives and why?
  • Objective are: learning training for you and your team, conveying relevant concepts, retain attention
  • Today’s exercise was practice (limit cards)
  • Can use prior classes as a resource
  • 30-35 minutes
  • Feedback from class