Motivation • Motivation: Dynamics of behavior that initiate, sustain, direct, and terminate actions • How motivated activities work: • Need: Internal deficiency (running low on something your body needs i.e. food); causes drive • Drive: Energized motivational state (e.g., hunger, thirst;) activates a response • Response: Action or series of actions designed to attain a goal (driving to McDonald's to get some food). • Goal: Target of motivated behavior( getting some food).
Is there more to it? • The model we discussed is simplistic because: • It dose not explain the behavior that takes place after our needs are satisfied (think about over eating at Thanksgiving) • It does not explain the behaviors that don’t seem to be related to satisfying an internal need such as the drive for success and status( wanting a Ferrari instead of a geo).
What else is involved in behavior other than the motivation • The answer is the incentive value of the goal which is defined as: Goal’s appeal beyond its ability to fill a need. • This is why we go after goals that have no obvious effect on our internal needs like having second helping of dessert even though we are full (after our internal need is satisfied).
Types of Motives • Primary Motives: Innate (inborn) motives based on biological needs that must be met to survive (hunger, thirst, air, pain avoidance) • Stimulus Motives: Needs for stimulation and information; appear to be innate, but not necessary for survival such as curiosity, the need for exploration, and the need for physical contact (I believe that its necessary for survival). • Secondary Motives: Based on learned needs, drives, and goals. They are usually created through the process of socialization to fulfil needs for having power, status, and affiliation. Example: creating a myspace account, winning the Super Bowl.
Primary Motivation and Homeostasis • Q: Why do we have primary motivations? • A: To maintain the body Homeostasis. • Homeostasis: is a Steady state of body equilibrium; balance. • When the body is at the homeostasis level: everything the body needs is at the level for ideal performance. In other words the body has the right temperature, blood sugar, water, etc... for you to perform your best. • When the homeostasis is disturbed, meaning you body is getting low on sugar or is having too much sugar, or getting to hot or to cold, your body responds through primary motivation to get the body back to the ideal level of functioning.
Primary Motives: Hunger • How do you know that you are hungry? • Hunger and the need to feed is influenced mainly by the blood sugar level in your body. • When Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar is detected through the stomach and the liver. A message is sent to the brain to initiate a response to restore the body homeostasis. • The Hypothalamus: Brain structure; regulates many aspects of motivation and emotion, including hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior. • The Feeding System: Area in the lateral hypothalamus, initiates eating when stimulated. • After the the blood sugar level is restored, the Satiety System: Area in the hypothalamus terminates the eating behavior. • Damage to the feeding and satiety system can lead do dramatic effects (not wanting to eat despite hunger and not being able to stop eating despite being full)
More on Eating Behavior • It takes 10 minutes for you brain to get the message from your intestine to know that you are no longer hungry (this why its recommended to eat slow) • Aside from the daily level of blood sugar in your body, hunger is influenced by the Set Point: Proportion of body fat that is maintained by changes in hunger and eating; point where weight stays the same when you make no effort to gain or lose weight. • Think of the set point as a memory foam mattress (this why your weight stays the same even when you are trying to diet).
The Final Word on Eating Behavior: Obesity and Eating Disorders • Why do we over eat? • External Eating Cues: Signs and signals linked with food (advertisements) • Socialization and cultural factors. • Comfort eating . • Time and money • Not wanting to waste food. • Addictive qualities. • Poor nutritional knowledge. • Q: How do we fix it? • A: Behavioral Dieting: Weight reduction based on changing exercise and eating habits and not on temporary self-starvation. • Steps in Behavioral Dieting: • Observe yourself, keep an eating diary, and keep a chart of daily progress. • Eat based on hunger, not on taste or learned habits that tell you to always clean your plate • Avoid snacks • Learn to weaken personal eating cues (don’t eat while you watch TV)
Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa • Anorexia Nervosa:Active self-starvation or sustained loss of appetite that is caused by psychological conflicts. • It is related to control issues. • It is very difficult to effectively treat • Overwhelmingly affects adolescent females
Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa (Binge-Purge Syndrome) • Bulimia Nervosa: Excessive eating (gorging) usually followed by self-induced vomiting and/or taking laxatives • It is difficult to treat • Prozac and Zoloft approved by FDA to treat bulimia nervosa • Affects females overwhelmingly
Causes of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa • Anorectics and bulimics have exaggerated fears of becoming fat; they think they are fat when the opposite is true. • Bulimics are obsessed with food and weight; anorectics with perfect control • Anorectics will often be put on a “weight-gain” diet to restore weight • Treat with cognitive-behavioral techniques
Primary motivations: Thirst • Types of thirst: • Extracellular Thirst: When water is lost from fluids surrounding the cells of the body • Intracellular Thirst: When fluid is drawn out of cells because of increased concentration of salts and minerals outside the cell.
Primary motivations: Pain Avoidance • How is pain avoidance different than other drives like hunger, thirst, etc...? • Its not a constant motivation; it happens in episodes. Episodic drive: Occurs in distinct episodes when bodily damage takes place or is about to occur • In other motivation like hunger and thirst we are seeking stimuli; with pain we are running away from the stimuli.
Sex Drive • Some argue that sex is not a primary motivation because its not required for the individual survival (your thoughts) • In “lower animals” sex drive is mainly influenced by the fertility cycles and hormone levels • Estrus: Changes in animals that create a desire for sex; Hormonal readiness for copulation. “being in heat.” • Types Of sex Hormones: • Estrogen: A female sex hormone • Androgens: Male hormones
Sex Drive in humans • In humans, sex drive is: • Non-homeostatic Drive: Independent of bodily need states or physical deprivation cycles. In other words there are no internal cues that trigger the body to engage in sex. The sex drive can be triggered at any time and any setting. • Sex drive is weakly influenced by hormones. Sexual expression is related to cultural, emotional, and mental factors rather than biological ones. (i.e. there is no connection between the women menstrual cycle and the level of sexual activity).
Stimulus motivations • These motivations reflect needs for information, exploration, manipulation, and sensory input. • The purpose of the stimuli drive is to satisfy our need of maintaining a homeostatic level of arousal. • Arousal: Activation of the body and nervous system, watching movies, playing a video game, making music, drawing a picture, etc... • In other words, stimuli drive are the things we do to help us from being over stimulated or under stimulated (boredom).
Arousal Theory • Arousal Theory: Assumes people prefer to maintain ideal, or comfortable, levels of arousal. • What is the ideal level of arousal required for optimal performance? • The answer is explained through Yerkes-Dodsen Law: If a task is simple (the goal is simple such as run fast from point A to B, it is best for arousal to be high (sprinting); if it is complex (playing basketball which involves a lot of strategy, decision making, and concentration), lower levels of arousal provides for the best performance. • Q: Does every one seek the same level of arousal? • A: No, Some people tend to seek high levels of arousal such as extreme sports. Loud stimuli. Others tend to seek lower levels of arousal such as living in the country, reading a book, playing chess. (
Test Anxiety • Test Anxiety: High levels of arousal and worry that seriously impair test performance. • How to Cope With Test Anxiety? • Preparation: do the work • Relaxation: learn to relax • Rehearsal: imagine the obstacle you may face and how to go about handling it • Restructuring thoughts: identify negative irrational thoughts and challenge them
Learned Motives • Social Motives: Acquired by growing up in a particular society or culture. Its important to have a nice car, or its crucial that you get married before age 30. • What are the needs fulfilled by learned motivations? • Need for Achievement: Desire to meet some internal standard of excellence or to excel • Need for Power: Desire to have social impact or control over others.
Humanistic view of Motivation: Abraham Maslow and Needs • Maslow organized Human Needs in a hierarchy based on presumed strength or potency of those needs. • He believed that some needs are more powerful than others and thus will influence your behavior to a greater degree.
Maslow’s Needs • Basic Needs: First four levels of needs in Maslow’s hierarchy • Lower needs tend to be more potent (“prepotent”) than higher needs • Love and belonging • Need for esteem and self-esteem • Growth Needs: Higher-level needs associated with self-actualization • Meta-Needs: Needs associated with impulses for self-actualization
Other ways of categorizing motivations: • Types of Motivation: • Intrinsic Motivation: Motivation coming from within, not from external rewards; based on personal enjoyment of a task or activity (being in this class for the sake of learning, not for a grade or to fulfill requirements). • Extrinsic Motivation: Based on obvious external rewards, obligations, or similar factors (to get the grade and fulfill a requirement).
Emotions • Emotion: It is a state characterized by physiological arousal and changes in facial expressions, gestures, posture, and subjective feelings. • Q: What role do emotions play in our life? • A: they motivate a lot of our of behaviors • Q: What functions do emotions serve? • A: Survival and adaptation: fear, love, communication
Th anatomy of Emotions • There are two different layers of emotion: inward layer and outward layer. • Physiological Changes Inward layer (in emotions): Include heart rate, blood pressure, perspiration, and other involuntary responses • Emotional Expression (outward layer): Outward signs of what a person is feeling
Feeling v.s mood • Feeling: is the present emotional expense. (I am feeling sad right now). It lasts for short moments. • Mood: Low-intensity, long-lasting emotional state (I am depressed most of the time. It lasts hours, days, months).
Classification of emotions • Emotion is classified in eight primary ones and large numbers of other emotions that are caused by a mixture of the primary ones • The primary emotions are: • Fear • Surprise • Sadness • Disgust • Anger • Anticipation • Joy • Trust
Example of non primary emotions • Joy + fear = guilt • love + anger +fear = Jealousy • Trust +fear = Submission • Joy +anticipation= optimism
Emotion and Brain • Facts: • Positive emotions are processed by the left side of the brain and negative emotions are processed by the right side of the brain. This is why you can feel happy and sad a the same time. This is also why your right side is more ticklish tan your left side. • The emotion of fear is regulated by Amygdala: Part of limbic system that produces fear responses. This because fear is essential for survival the response is process by the amyglada directly without involving the brain. This why we react without thinking.
Emotions and physiology • Emotion has an effect on the Automatic Nervous system. Think about fear. • Parasympathetic Rebound: Overreaction of the Parasympathetic Branch to intense emotion, can cause sudden death. The body over does the slowing down of the heart rate to a stop.
Lie Detectors • Polygraph: Device that records changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and galvanic skin response (GSR) Measures sweating. • It starts by asking the person neutral questions to establish a base line reading then the person is asked about the information the person is suspected of lying about. The drastic difference in the reading from the baseline is interpreted as telling a lie. • The lie detector is not real. It’s more of an emotional state detector rather than a lie detector. Baseline reading reflects the relaxation state while the lie reading reflects a state of anxiety and stress.
Questions Asked While Taking a Polygraph • Irrelevant Questions: Neutral, nonthreatening, non-emotional questions in a polygraph test • Relevant Questions: Questions to which only someone guilty should react • Control Questions: Questions that almost always provoke anxiety in a polygraph (e.g. “Have you ever taken any office supplies?”)
Emotion in the social cultural perspective. • The expression of emotion has an adaptive value: bearing the teeth is a signal of one wanting to be left alone • Basic facial expressions are universal and inborn rather than learned (blind studies) • Culture plays a role in determining what emotions are appropriate to express outwardly: • individualistic culture: where autonomy and independence is valued, anger is a natural accepted expression • collective cultures: where harmony with community and cooperation is emphasized expression of anger outwardly is frowned upon. • Gender and emotion : women are not more emotional than men. Women are socialized to express sadness, love, guilt, shame. While men are socialized to only express anger and hostility. Power v.s nurture.
Body Language (Kinesics) • Kinesics: Is the Study of communication through body movement, posture, gestures, and facial expressions. • It’s often used to convey or withhold emotional messages. It could be both conscious and unconscious. • It should be considered within the cultural context.
Three Types of Facial Expressions • Our faces are capable of producing 20000 expression but there are three basic categories • Pleasantness-Unpleasantness • Attention-Rejection • Activation: Degree of arousal a person is experiencing
Can we Detect Lies through body language? • Usually shifty eyes, and nervously touching ones body is associated with lying, but that is not reliable measures. • Reliable body movement that can be indicative of deception: • Illustrators: Gestures people use to illustrate what they are saying • Tend to decrease when person is lying • Emblems: Gestures that have widely understood meanings within a particular culture • Tend to increase when person is lying
James-Lange Theory • Emotional feelings follow bodily arousal and come from awareness of such arousal. • You don’t realize that you are afraid until you notice the physiological changes associated with the emotion of fear.
Cannon-Bard Theory • The thalamus (in brain) causes emotional feelings and bodily arousal at the same time. • The physiological response and the feeling of fear takes place at the same time
Schachter’s Cognitive Theory • Emotions occur when physical arousal is labeled or interpreted on the basis of experience and situational cues. • You experience the emotion after you cognitively decide how you should label what you have experienced.
Facial Feedback Hypothesis • Sensations from facial expressions and becoming aware of them is what leads to emotional experience. • Your facial expression tells you what you are feeling. • Making different emotional faces produces different physiological responses.