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Consumer Behavior, Eighth Edition SCHIFFMAN & KANUK. Chapter 14. Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior: An International Perspective. The Imperative To Be Multinational. Global Trade Agreements EU NAFTA Acquiring Exposure to Other Cultures Country-of-origin Effects.

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chapter 14

Consumer Behavior,Eighth EditionSCHIFFMAN & KANUK

Chapter 14

Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior: An International Perspective

the imperative to be multinational
The Imperative To Be Multinational
  • Global Trade Agreements
    • EU
    • NAFTA
  • Acquiring Exposure to Other Cultures
  • Country-of-origin Effects
country of origin effects negative and positive
Country of Origin Effects: Negative and Positive
  • Many Chinese consumers consider Sony high-end and high-quality, but may refuse to buy due to animosity toward Japan
    • High-animosity consumers own fewer Japanese products than low-animosity consumers
slide4

Cross-Cultural Consumer Analysis

Research to determine the extent to which consumers of two or more nations are similar in relation to

issues in cross cultural consumer analysis
Issues in Cross-Cultural Consumer Analysis
  • Similarities and Differences Among People
  • Time Effects
  • The Growing Global Middle Class
  • Acculturation
    • Research Techniques
table 14 2 some comparisons
Chinese Cultural Traits

Centered on Confucian doctrine

Submissive to authority

American Cultural Traits

Individual centered

Emphasis on self-reliance

Primary faith in rationalism

Table 14.2 Some Comparisons
the effect of guo qing
The Effect of Guo Qing
  • Due to the one-child policy in China, families emphasize high quality purchases for their “
  • Children in China are given more than $3 billion collectively to spend as they wish and influence about 68% of parental spending.
slide8

OVERALL PACE

WALKING 60 FEET

POSTAL SERVICE

PUBLIC CLOCK

Switzerland

1

3

2

1

Ireland

2

1

3

11

Germany

3

5

1

8

Japan

4

7

4

6

Italy

5

10

12

2

England

6

4

9

13

Sweden

7

13

5

7

Austria

8

23

8

3

Netherlands

9

2

14

25

Hong Kong

10

14

6

14

Table 14.3 The Pace of Life

SPEED IS RELATIVE

(rank of 31 countries for overall pace of life and for three measures)

slide10

FACTORS

EXAMPLES

Differences in language and meaning

Words or concepts may not mean the same in two different countries.

The income, social class, age, and sex of target customers may differ dramatically in two different countries.

Differences in consumption patterns

Two countries may differ substantially in the level of consumption or use of products or services.

Differences in the perceived benefits of products and services

Two nations may use or consume the same product in very different ways.

Table 14.4 Basic Research Issues in Cross-Cultural Analysis

slide11

FACTORS

EXAMPLES

Differences in the criteria for evaluating products and services

The benefits sought from a service may differ from country to country.

Differences in economic and social conditions and family structure

The “style” of family decision making may vary significantly from country to country.

The types and quality of retail outlets and direct-mail lists may vary greatly among countries.

Differences in marketing research possibilities

The availability of professional consumer researchers may vary considerably from country to country.

Table 14.4 continued

slide12

The Feasibility of Consumer Telephone Research in Asia

COUNTRY

FEASIBILITY

Australia

yes

China, Mainland

no, but within five years in big cities

Hong Kong

yes, best method by far

India

yes, for big cities and in English

Indonesia

yes, in Java, Bali and Sumatra

Japan

yes

South Korea

yes

alternative multinational strategies global versus local
Alternative Multinational Strategies: Global Versus Local
  • Favoring a “World Brand”
  • Adaptive Global Marketing
  • Framework for Assessing Multinational Strategies
    • Global
    • Local
    • Mixed
slide15

Products that are manufactured, packaged, and positioned the same way regardless of the country in which they are sold.

slide16

PRODUCT STRATEGY

COMMUNICATON

STRATEGY

STANDARDIZED COMMUNICATIONS

LOCALIZED COMMUNICATIONS

STANDARDIZED PRODUCT

Global strategy:

Uniform Product/ Uniform Message

Mixed Strategy:

Uniform Product/ Customized Message

LOCALIZED PRODUCT

Mixed strategy:

Customized Product/ Uniform Message

Local Strategy:

Customized Product/ Customized Message

Table 14.6 A Framework for Alternative Global Marketing Strategies

slide17

Advertising to the World’s Consumers

REACHING PEOPLE

(media spending per capita for top-ranking and bottom ranking countries, 1996)

RANK

COUNTRY

PER-CAPITA MEDIA SPENDING*

1

Japan

$2,137

2

United States

1,861

3

France

1,845

4

Germany

1,593

5

Netherlands

1,517

6

Denmark

1,504

7

Belgium

1,357

8

United Kingdom

1,286

table 14 8 six global consumer segments

Strivers

23%

Devouts

22%

Altruists

18%

Intimates

15%

Fun Seekers

12%

Creatives

10%

Table 14.8 Six Global Consumer Segments
marketing mistakes a failure to understand differences
Marketing Mistakes: A Failure to Understand Differences
  • Product Problems
  • Promotional Problems
  • Pricing and Distribution Problems
consider color
Meanings of Blue

Holland - warmth

Iran - death

Sweden - coldness

India - purity

Meanings of Yellow

U.S. - warmth

France - fidelity

Consider Color