Consumer Behavior, Eighth Edition SCHIFFMAN & KANUK. Chapter 14. Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior: An International Perspective. The Imperative To Be Multinational. Global Trade Agreements EU NAFTA Acquiring Exposure to Other Cultures Country-of-origin Effects.
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Research to determine the extent to which consumers of two or more nations are similar in relation to
WALKING 60 FEET
Table 14.3 The Pace of Life
SPEED IS RELATIVE
(rank of 31 countries for overall pace of life and for three measures)
Differences in language and meaning
Words or concepts may not mean the same in two different countries.
The income, social class, age, and sex of target customers may differ dramatically in two different countries.
Differences in consumption patterns
Two countries may differ substantially in the level of consumption or use of products or services.
Differences in the perceived benefits of products and services
Two nations may use or consume the same product in very different ways.
Table 14.4 Basic Research Issues in Cross-Cultural Analysis
Differences in the criteria for evaluating products and services
The benefits sought from a service may differ from country to country.
Differences in economic and social conditions and family structure
The “style” of family decision making may vary significantly from country to country.
The types and quality of retail outlets and direct-mail lists may vary greatly among countries.
Differences in marketing research possibilities
The availability of professional consumer researchers may vary considerably from country to country.
Table 14.4 continued
no, but within five years in big cities
yes, best method by far
yes, for big cities and in English
yes, in Java, Bali and Sumatra
Products that are manufactured, packaged, and positioned the same way regardless of the country in which they are sold.
Uniform Product/ Uniform Message
Uniform Product/ Customized Message
Customized Product/ Uniform Message
Customized Product/ Customized Message
Table 14.6 A Framework for Alternative Global Marketing Strategies
(media spending per capita for top-ranking and bottom ranking countries, 1996)
PER-CAPITA MEDIA SPENDING*