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Know Your Numbers!

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  1. Know Your Numbers! Presented By: Nancy Health Coach

  2. Blood Pressure…

  3. Blood Pressure Blood Pressure is a measurement of the force applied to the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body. • Systolic pressureis the force in the arteries when the heart beats • Diastolic pressureis the force in the arteries when the heart is at rest • Written as Systolic/Diastolic

  4. Low Blood Pressure: ≤90 /≤60 Normal: ≤120 /≤80 Pre-hypertension: 120-139 / 80-89 Hypertension: Stage 1: 140-159 / 90-99 Stage 2:≥160 /≥100 Blood Pressure

  5. Exercise Reduce Your Salt Intake (Current recommendation is less than 2,400 mg/day) Reduce Your Saturated Fat Intake Lose Weight DASH Diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Reduce Stress Quit Smoking Drink Alcohol in Moderation, if at all Monitor Your Blood Pressure Regularly Stay Hydrated Increase Potassium in Your Diet When Necessary-Medication Managing Your Blood Pressure

  6. Cholesterol…

  7. Cholesterol Cholesterol is a soft, fat-like, waxy substance found in the blood stream and in all your body’s cells.

  8. LDL Cholesterol • A.K.A. “Bad” cholesterol • Too much LDL in the blood can slowly build up the inner walls of the arteries that feed the heart and brain • Along with other substances, a plaque is formed, narrowing the arteries & making them inflexible • This condition is known as Atherosclerosis

  9. LDL Cholesterol • LDL: • Optimal: less than 100 mg/dL • Near/Above Optimal: 100 to129 mg/dL • Borderline High: 130 to 159 mg/dL • High: 160 to 189 mg/dL • Very High: 190 mg/dL and above

  10. HDL Cholesterol • A.K.A. “Good” cholesterol • Medical experts believe HDL cholesterol tends to carry cholesterol away from the arteries & into the liver where it’s passed from the body • Some experts think HDL removes excess cholesterol from arterial plaque, slowing its buildup

  11. HDL Cholesterol • HDL: • Higher levels are better • Low levels (>40 mg/dL for men, >50 mg/dL for women) puts you at higher risk for heart disease • In the average man, HDL levels range from 40-50 mg/dL • In the average woman, HDL levels range from 50-60 mg/dL • An HDL cholesterol of 60 mg/dL or higher gives some protection against heart disease

  12. Triglycerides • A form of fat in the body • Elevated numbers can be due to overweight/obesity, physical inactivity, cigarette smoking, excess alcohol consumption, diet high in carbohydrates

  13. Triglycerides • Triglycerides: • Normal: less than 150 mg/dL • Borderline-High: 150-199 mg/dL • High: 200-499 mg/dL • Very High: 500 mg/dL

  14. Total Blood (Serum) Cholesterol Levels • Desirable—Less than 200mg/dL • Borderline-High Risk—200-239 mg/dL • High Risk—240 mg/dL and over

  15. Cholesterol Ratio • The ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol • Obtained by dividing the HDL cholesterol level into the total cholesterol • Example: if a person has a total cholesterol of 200 mg/dL and an HDL cholesterol level of 50 mg/dL, the ratio would be 4:1 • The goal is to keep the ratio below 5:1 • The optimum ratio is 3.5:1

  16. Managing Your Cholesterol • Eat a heart-healthy diet • Get regular physical activity • Avoid tobacco smoke • Work with your doctor to create a prevention and/or treatment plan • Make lifestyle changes • Take medication, if necessary (as prescribed by a doctor) • Limit alcohol to no more than 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men

  17. Blood Glucose…

  18. Blood Glucose The term used for the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose, transported via the bloodstream, is the primary source of energy for the body’s cells.

  19. Blood Glucose • Levels are tightly regulated in the body • Normally, the blood glucose level is maintained between 4 and 8 mmol/L (70 to 150 mg/dL in the US) • The total amount of glucose circulating in the blood is therefore about 3.3 to 7g (assuming an ordinary adult blood volume of 5 liters) • Hypoglycemia is a condition where blood glucose levels drop too low • Hyperglycemia is a condition where blood glucose levels remain too high; Long-term hyperglycemia leads to diabetes mellitus, or failure of blood sugar regulation

  20. Understanding Your Results • There are four primary blood sugar tests, and the results vary depending on the test: • Fasting Blood Sugar Test • Measures the blood sugar after fasting for at least 8 hours or overnight • Lower than 100 mg/dL is Normal • 100-125 mg/dL is Pre-Diabetes • Type I or Type II diabetes is consistent with results of 126 mg/dL or higher, but generally requires repeated results • Results of 200 mg/dL or higher are interpreted as having diabetes

  21. Understanding Your Results • Random Blood Sugar Test • Measures the blood sugar at any point in time • Lower than 100 mg/dL is Normal • Higher than 100 mg/dL but lower than 199 mg/dL is Pre-Diabetes • 200 mg/dL or higher suggests Type I or Type II diabetes • Oral Glucose Tolerance Test • Measures your body’s response to sugar • Generally used with pregnant women to determine if they have gestational diabetes • Lower than 140 mg/dL is Normal • 140 mg/dL to 199 mg/dL is considered Pre-Diabetes • 200 mg/dL or higher is considered Type I or Type II diabetes

  22. Understanding Your Results • Glycated Hemoglobin (A1C) Test • This test is for diabetics and gauges how well you’re managing your diabetes • Reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two or three months • For people without diabetes, the normal range is 4-6 percent • An A1C level lower than 7 percent is the target for people with diabetes • An A1C level lower than 6 percent is the target for people with diabetes, who are pregnant or have other health concerns • An A1C level higher than 7 percent may indicate a change is needed in your diabetes treatment plan

  23. Improving Your Blood Glucose Levels • Maintain near-normal levels • Healthier food choices • Use the glycemic index to assist in determining which foods to eat • Combining foods with a larger glycemic index with foods of a lower one can help balance out their effect on blood glucose levels • 30 minutes/day of moderate, physical activity

  24. Glycemic Index • The Glycemic Index ranks carbohydrates according to their effect on blood glucose levels • Low GI: 55 and under • Medium GI: 56 to 69 • High GI: 70 and above

  25. Know Your Numbers Q & A