Stay silent while announcements are on. Get homework out. Number paper 1-3, get ready for Chapter 10 reading quiz. Exempt from quiz: Kaniesha, Matt, Brooke, and Maggie. Get homework out, prepare for quiz!. Chapter 10 Reading Quiz 1. Define agriculture. How did agriculture originate?
Stay silent while announcements are on. Get homework out. Number paper 1-3, get ready for Chapter 10 reading quiz. • Exempt from quiz: Kaniesha, Matt, Brooke, and Maggie
Chapter 10 Reading Quiz 1 • Define agriculture. • How did agriculture originate? • Describe the difference between vegetative planting and seed agriculture
Agriculture • deliberate modification of Earth’s surface • through cultivation of plants • rearing of animals
Where did Agriculture Originate? Hunters and gatherers
2 Types of cultivation • Vegetative planting • Seed agriculture
Location of Agriculture Hearths • Vegetative planning: • Southeast Asia • Roots, banana’s, palm leaves
Location of 1st Seed Agriculture • 3 hearths • Western India • Wheat/barley • Southern Mexico • Squash/maize • Peru • beans • Ethiopia • Animals for plowing
Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture • Purpose of farming • Percentage of farmers in the labor force • Use of machinery • Farm size • Relationship of farming to other businesses
Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture • Purpose of farming: • LDC’s: own consumption • MDC’s: sale off farm
Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture • % of farmers in the labor force: • MDC’s: less than 1/10 farmers • LDC’s: one-half
Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture • Use of Machinery: • Larger use in MDC’s • Scientific advances • Electronics • transportation • LDC’s: hand tools/animal power
Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture • Farm Size: • Large in commercial • mechanization • U.S. • Fewer farms • Farmland decreased • Decrease in prime agricultural land
Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture • Relationship of Farming to Other Businesses • Agribusiness • Commercial: use of modern communications
Where are Agricultural Regions in LDC’s? • Shifting cultivation • Pastoral nomadism • Intensive subsistence • Plantation • Page 335
Shifting Cultivation • Slash and burn • Crops on fields until soil is depleted • Small villages • Replaced, step in economic development
Pastoral Nomadism • Herding of domesticated animals (practiced in dry climates) • Sheep herding • Camel, goats, sheep • Transhumance: seasonal movement of livestock b/t mountains and lowland pastures • declining
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture • Work done by hand/animals • Abundant labor- lack $ to buy equipment • East, South, Southeast Asia • Wet rice • Double cropping: 2 harvests in 1 year • Crop rotation: • Different fields from crop to crop Each year to avoid soil exhaustion
Plantation Farming • Large farm- commercial farming but mostly in LDC’s • Specializes in 1 or 2 crops • Cotton, sugarcane, tobacco
Where are Agricultural Regions in More Developed Countries? • 6 main types • Mixed/livestock • Dairying • Grain • Livestock ranching • Mediterranean • gardening
Mixed Crop/Livestock Most common form in U.S./northern Europe Integration of crops and livestock Land- devoted to crops Main income: animals (beef, milk, eggs) Corn is crop of choice followed by soybeans
Dairy Farming • Located near urban areas (20% of total value of agric. Output) • Transportation factors • Sell products to wholesalers • Challenges: labor intensive, feeding cows
Grain Farming • Most important: wheat • U.S. and Russia • World’s leading export • U.S. largest producer of grain
Livestock Ranching • Commercial grazing of livestock • Used to be nomadic- now sedentary • Now: Meat-processing industry
Mediterranean Agriculture • Mediterranean, California, Chile, Australia, South Africa • Grapes, olives, nuts, fruits, veggies (human consumption) • Horticulture: fruits, vegetables, flowers
Fruit Farming • Truck farming (U.S.)- vegetables/fruits processed for canning/freezing • Southeastern U.S.- closed to urban areas
Please remain silent while announcements are on. Get check questions and agricultural chart out. Prepare for reading quiz!
Reading Quiz 1 • Describe the difference between vegetative planting and seed agriculture 2. Describe the purpose of the Von Thunen model of agriculture. 3. Describe the purpose of double cropping.
Get homework out. Look over ag. Chart for quiz!
Access to Markets • Von Thunen Model: • Commercial farmers consider which crops to cultivate and which animals to raise based on market location • Compares 2 costs: • Cost of land • Cost of transporting products
Von Thunen • Center: city • 1st ring- around the city: produce/dairy/flower products • 2nd ring- wood products- timber (fuel/buildings) • 3rd ring- crops/pasture • 4th ring- grazing area for animals
Access to Markets • Application: specific crops grown around rings in cities • Did not consider site/human factors • Assumes: all land has similar characteristics • Does not take into consideration social/political factors
Get homework out. Stay silent while announcements are on. Pass up seed ag. Diffusion activity. Prepare for reading quiz.
Reading Quiz • What is overproduction? • What are two things people/govt’s can do to help with the problems that come along with overproduction?
Pass up Vocab! Remain silent while announcements are on. Get check questions out! You will need this for notes
Where does your food come from? • http://www.moremeatrix.com/ • When you shop for food do you think about where it came from? • Does this better you now that you think about it? Why or why not?
Why do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties? • Commercial: • Overproduction: What is it? • (supply exceeds demand) • Harms: surpluses- hurts global economy • Overproduction: What can we do? • Avoid crops that are in access • Govt pays farmers when certain prices are low • Govt buys surplus and exports to LDC’s
Farming Subsidies • Money paid by govt. • Supplements income • Manages supply of commodities • Wheat, soybeans, corn • Influence cost of commodities
Example of Farming Subsidy • Govt. sets a price floor: 4.00 • 2009 bushel of wheat is sold for 3.50 • Govt would give farmers .50 cents • 2010 bushel of wheat sells for 3.00 • Govt would give farmers an extra dollar per bushel
Benefits • Necessary b/c agriculture fluctuates • Natural/political events • Farmers revenues vary from year to year • Strong domestic farms • Increase food production/drive down costs
Criticisms • Fairness ($ not given to retailers/industries) • Hinder growth in LDC’s • Helping large farms, not small ones • Overproduction