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Quiz: Intro to Psychoanalytic Theory. 1. Which major 19 th Century scientist and his theory greatly influenced Freud’s thinking? 2. Freud’s tripartite (3-way) model of the human mind is known as the _________.

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quiz intro to psychoanalytic theory
Quiz: Intro to Psychoanalytic Theory
  • 1. Which major 19th Century scientist and his theory greatly influenced Freud’s thinking?
  • 2. Freud’s tripartite (3-way) model of the human mind is known as the _________.
  • 3. The part of the mind that the individual is not aware of, that possesses memories and experiences not immediately be brought to awareness is the _______.
  • 4. The part of the mind the individual is aware of and provides contact with the external world is the _____.
  • 5. The part of the mind the individual is not immediately aware of but whose memories can be retrieved by directing one’s attention to it is called ________.
sigmund freud 1856 1939
Sigmund Freud: 1856-1939
  • Father of Modern Psychoanalytic thought
  • Primary Concern?
    • Workings of unconscious
  • Main insight?
    • Personality made up of id, ego, super-ego (a complex)
  • View of religion?
    • An illusion, not real
    • A collective neurosis
key questions
Key Questions
  • Why is Freud considered one of the greatest thinkers of the 20th century?
  • What is Freud’s Theory of Personality?
  • What is the topographical model?
  • What is the goal of psychoanalysis?
  • How does Freud view/understand religion?
background life
Background: Life
  • Father: struggling Jewish wool merchant
  • Freud never really respected him (ambiguous feelings)
  • Anti-Semitic society
  • Moved to Vienna when he was 4
  • Complex family relations
  • Influence of Catholic nanny
  • 1873: University of Vienna (95% Catholic)
  • Discriminated, deeply hurt, isolated, wrong race, religion: atheist : deep aversion to Christianity
background continued
Background continued
  • 1883: had a medical practice: pioneered electrotherapy and hypletion (water treatment)
  • Had a female patient: “The Talking Therapy”
  • Things that were unconscious were becoming conscious
  • Collected observational case-studies and engaged in self-analysis
  • The Interpretation of Dreams (1900): people thought he was nuts
freud s theory of personality
Freud’s Theory of Personality
  • The Topographical Model:
    • Conscious: connects to external world; small, limited part of mental life
    • Preconscious: where much of work happens: unconscious made conscious
    • Unconscious: dominant force in personality
  • Led to a refinement:
    • Id
    • Ego
    • Super-Ego
  • Key insight: we are governed primarily by unconscious
personality
Personality?
  • “A stable set of tendencies and characteristics that determine those commonalities and differences in people’s psychological behavior (thoughts, feelings, and actions) that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment”
  • Dr. Madeline Halligan, Fordham University
key questions1
Key Questions
  • How (in general) do the relationships between id, ego, and super-ego differ between a healthy and a neurotic person? (Defense mechanisms)
  • How does Freud’s Theory of Instinct influence his Theory of Personality?
  • What in Freud’s Theory of Religion can you say yes to? What can you not say yes to?
other theories
Other Theories
  • Theory of Instinct: starting point of human behavior
  • Theory of Civilization/Culture: repression of instincts
  • Theory of Religion: illusion; wish followed by a fear; resolution of Oedipal Complex
  • All are key to understanding Freud’s view of human mind and religion
theory of instinct
Theory of Instinct
  • Aim of all human activity?
  • satisfaction of instinctual drives: sex and aggression (whether artistic, cultural, religious)
  • Life as continuous cycle of:
    • Instinctual need/desire and resulting tension
    • discharge of instinctual energy-reduction of tension
    • Buildup of instinctual need
assumptions
Assumptions
  • Satisfaction involves release/discharge of psychic energy and reduction of tension
  • Freud: sees person as torn between conflicting drives or instincts (conflictual, dualistic model)
  • Libido: the sex instinct: two goals: pleasure (release of tension), and procreation
  • Would evolve into his Theory of Eros (life instinct) and Thanatos (death instinct, turned into aggression instinct)
myers briggs personality profile
Myers-Briggs Personality Profile

Extrovert-Introvert: The way in which you gain energy

Intuitive-Sensory: Way in which you take in information

Thinking-Feeling: Way you process information

Perceiving-Judging: The way in which you utilize information you’ve gathered and processed

defense mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms
  • Freud: What is our basic problem?
  • Repression: all mechanisms are repressive but repression is a particular form of defense
  • Are all part of ego
  • Ego’s way of coping with anxiety, frustration, unacceptable impulses
  • +/- impacts
  • Positive?: Builds up ego: important
defense mechanisms continued
Defense Mechanisms continued

Minus?: distorts reality; prevents us from growing emotionally

Repression like sweeping the “garbage of our life” under a rug?

Distinction between repression and suppression?

Repression: unconscious, less reality-oriented

Suppression: conscious, more reality based, healthier

quiz theory of religion
Quiz Theory of Religion
  • 1.The primary struggle at the center of civilization, according to Freud is between ______ and _______
  • 2. According to Freud, religion contribute to the formation of civilization by forcing people to renounce _______ and _______
  • 3. True or False: Freud believes it is possible to have a healthy form of religious devotion
quiz theory of religion1
Quiz Theory of Religion
  • 4. Freud does not label religious beliefs as delusion (false) but as illusion, meaning that ____ is linked to the illusion
  • 5. Freud further understands religion as an obsessional neurosis, and is therefore more an expression of ______ than ______.
day 6
Day 6
  • How does Totemic religions offer insight into Freud’s Oedipal Complex?
  • How do the two great prohibitions in Totemic religions act as the root of civilization and religion?
mechanisms of defense
Mechanisms of Defense

Denial

Displacement/transference

Identification

Intellectualization/Isolation

Reaction Formation

Sublimation

*Projection

mechanisms of defense and 2 main neurotic styles
Mechanisms of Defense and 2 Main Neurotic Styles
  • First: each of us have elements of both
  • Obsessive-Compulsive
  • Case-Study: “Jay”
    • Detailed, dedicated, driven, predictable
    • Sad, anxious, industrious, insecure, self-sufficient
    • Stressed, volatile, distant, rigid, fearful
  • Primary Defense?
    • Intellectualization/Isolation of effect
    • Not in touch with feelings: Thinking, not feeling
obsessive compulsives
Obsessive-Compulsives
  • What do Obs-comps most think of?
  • “I should….”
  • How to treat? How to help grow emotionally, spiritually?
  • Help link actions, events w/his feelings
  • Main characteristics?
  • Aggressiveness, drive, ambitious, concerned with details (Anal personality)
hysterical
Hysterical
  • Case #2: “Polly”
    • Pretty, popular, social, feeling-type, center of social wheel, Social director of sorority,
    • school performance erratic, lost best friend, grades fell, took year off
    • Sensitive to emotions of family, changed major
    • generally happy; when dark thoughts came, like avalanche
hysterical style cont
Hysterical Style cont
  • Primary Defense?
  • Repression
  • When analyze emotions, gets worse
  • How to treat/develop emotionally?
  • Move more to thinking
  • Was flunking out: How did she react?
  • Not quite denial but….minimizes, distances (minimization)
  • When emotions come…..powerful, uncontrollable
4 key feelings
4-Key Feelings
  • If can change thinking, can change feelings
  • Mad (angry)
  • Glad (joyful)
  • Sad
  • Afraid
  • Example: insult-----anger-----replay over and over
  • Thinking greatly contributes to feelings
theory of civilization
Theory of Civilization
  • Purpose? Repression of human aggression and hostility
  • Protect against nature (human and the world), and adjust people’s relations (infected with aggression and hostility to each other)
  • Origin of civilization found between conflict between Eros and death instincts
  • Also leads to rise of religion (Oedipal Complex)
theory of religion
Theory of Religion
  • Illusion, not real, neurosis…
  • Grows out of repression of instincts: specifically, sex and aggression
  • Religion a function of super-ego: socialization of moral beliefs
theory of instinct1
Theory of Instinct
  • Id is reservoir of instinctual desire in need of satisfaction: real or fantasy world
  • In end, cannot be found in fantasy: impact of internet and virtual reality?
  • Role of Ego:
    • Decides how instinct is to be realistically satisfied
    • Calculates consequences
    • Buffer-zone between impulses of id and real world
theory of instinct2
Theory of Instinct
  • Super-Ego
  • Inhibits id through moral reasoning of internalized views of parents and society
  • Id: pleasure principle
  • Ego: reality principle
  • Super-Ego: right and wrong principle (moral)
what is our problem
What is our Problem?
  • Repression: ego and super-ego repress desires of id
key questions continued
Key Questions, continued
  • Which system (biological, psychological, social) do the id, ego, and super-ego derive from and why?
freud s insight
Freud’s Insight

-Personality made up of Id, Ego, Super-ego

-id: instinct: sex and aggression

-Ego: develops from id: relates us to reality

looks for objects to satisfy

-Super-ego: the internalization of the values of parents and culture