Psychoanalytic Perspective. “Depth perspectives” Motivation, Human needs, Unconscious, Fulfillment, Psychological Adjustment, etc. Psychoanalytic Perspective. What makes us do what we do? Can you even know why you do what you do? Can your mind fool itself? If so, why?
Motivation, Human needs, Unconscious, Fulfillment, Psychological Adjustment, etc
1) Unconscious plays a large role in life
2) Behavior often reflects compromises in conflicts between mental process (e.g., emotions, motivations, thoughts)
3) Childhood is important in personality development (esp, for later relationships)
4) Mental representations of the self and relationships guide our interactions with others
5) Personallity development means moving from an immature, dependent relationship style to a mature, independent relationship style.
Response to Inkblot
and the World
- W = whole (intellectual potential)
- D = subdivisions (common sense)
- Dd = details (compulsive tendencies)
- people, part of a person, clothing, animal, part of an animal, nature, anatomical
- F = shape/outline (rational approach)
- M = movement (imagination)
- C = color (emotional reactions)
- Y = shades of grey (depression)
4. typical vs. unusual response
Construct a story about what you see on the following picture
- what led up to the scene
- what is happening
- what the characters in the story might think or feel
- how the story will end
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) – developed first
comprehensive theory of personality.
Neurologist – encountered patients with a wide
range of psychological disturbances.
A particularly perplexing disorder was “hysteria.”
Jean Martin Charcot – French neurologist.
Ambivalence – conflicting feelings or motives.
Conflict – a tension or battle between opposing motives.
The more conflict and ambivalence a person experiences, the more anxiety, depression, physical complaints.
Freud’s topographic model addressed conflict between conscious and unconscious motives.
His second model, the drive or instinct model, was Freud’s model of what drives or motivates people.
Influenced by the work of Charles Darwin – Freud believed that humans are motivated by instincts.
Considered the development of the libidinal drive the key to personality development.
Hence, he proposed a theory of psychosexual development.
At each stage, libido is focused on a different part of the body, or erogenous zone (region of the body that can generate sexual pleasure).
On the one hand:
Overly neat, tidy, punctual
On the other hand:
Messy, stubborn, late
People can also regress to anal or oral stages under times of stress.
Freud emphasized its link to the Oedipus complex.
The Oedipus complex refers to Freud’s hypothesis that little boys want an exclusive relationship with their mothers.
Conversely, little girls want an exclusive relationships with their fathers.
The structural model posits three sets of mental forces, or structures:
Id – pleasure principle, primary process thinking
Ego – reality principle, secondary process thinking
Superego - conscience
According to Freud, people regulate emotions and
deal with conflict by employing defense mechanisms
– unconscious mental processes aimed at protecting
the person from unpleasant emotions.
Inadequate basis in empirical testing
Hard to prove or to falsify
Overemphasis on sex and aggression.
Focuses on the person – the abilities that a person brings.
Freedom of choice and free will.
Create our own lives and determine our own destinies rather than being shaped by forces outside our control.
Chief leaders: Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Rollo May
Rejected psychoanalysis – hostility, conflicts, instincts.
Rejected behaviourists – learning, reinforcement, conditioning.
Complete the following sentences to express your real feelings: