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6C. 2 x 3C. -2 NAD. NAD. GAPDH. NADH + H +. ADP. +4 ATP. ATP. PEP. ADP. 2 x 3C. ATP. Pyruvate. -2 NAD. CoASH + NAD. -2 CoASH. PDHC. CO 2 + NADH + H +. 2x 2C. Acetyl- CoA. Glycolysis. Glucose. ATP. ADP. -2 ATP. ATP. ADP. T3P. Glycolysis simplified. Glucose. 2 NAD.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

6C

2 x 3C

-2 NAD

NAD

GAPDH

NADH + H+

ADP

+4 ATP

ATP

PEP

ADP

2 x 3C

ATP

Pyruvate

-2 NAD

CoASH + NAD

-2 CoASH

PDHC

CO2 + NADH + H+

2x 2C

Acetyl-CoA

Glycolysis

Glucose

ATP

ADP

-2 ATP

ATP

ADP

T3P

slide2

Glycolysis

simplified

Glucose

2 NAD

2 NADH + 2 H+

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 Pyruvate

2 CoASH + 2 NAD

2 CO2 + 2 NADH + 2 H+

2 Acetyl-CoA

slide3

NAD + 3 ATP

3 ATP + NAD

FAD + 2 ATP

3 ATP + NAD

TCA / Respiration

+ O2

2C

Acetyl-CoA

4C

CoASH

OAA

Citrate

NADH + H+

6C

NAD

Isocitrate

Malate

NAD

Fumarate

NADH + H+

CO2

FADH2

2-KG

FAD

Succinate

CoASH + NAD

Succinyl-

CoA

CoASH

NADH + H+

ATP

CO2

ADP

4C

slide4

2 Acetyl-CoA

2 CoASH

6 NADH + 6 H+

2 FADH2 + 2 H+

2 ATP

TCA / Respiration

simplified

18 ATP +6 NAD

4 ATP +2 FAD

slide5

simplified

2 Acetyl-CoA

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 Acetate

2 CoASH

An alternative

Acetate Fermentation

2 Acetyl-CoA

Pi

2 CoASH

2 Acetyl~P

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 Acetate

slide6

versus

Fermentation

Glucose

2 NAD

2 NADH + 2 H+

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 Pyruvate

2 CoASH + 2 NAD

2 CO2 + 2 NADH + 2 H+

2 Acetyl-CoA

2 CoASH

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 Acetate

< 4 ATP

Respiration

Glucose

2 NAD

6 ATP +2 NAD

2 NADH + 2 H+

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 Pyruvate

2 CoASH + 2 NAD

6 ATP +2 NAD

2 CO2 + 2 NADH + 2 H+

2 Acetyl-CoA

2 CoASH

18 ATP +6 NAD

6 NADH + 6 H+

4 ATP +2 FAD

2 FADH2 + 2 H+

2 ATP

38 ATP

slide7

2 NADH

+ 2 H+

2 NAD

2 ATP

2 Lactate

2 CoASH + 2 NAD

2 CO2 + 2 NADH + 2 H+

2 NADH + 2 H+

2 NAD + 2 CoASH

2 ATP

2 NADH + 2H+

2 NAD

2 Ethanol

To recycle NAD

sacrifice energy (ATP)

Glucose

2 NAD

2 NADH + 2 H+

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 Pyruvate

2 Acetyl-CoA

2 Pi

2 CoASH

4 ATP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 Acetate

slide8

NADH

+ H+

NAD

Lactate

CoASH + NAD

CO2 + NADH + H+

Acetyl-CoA

Pi

CoASH

3 ATP

ADP

ATP

Acetate

To recycle NAD

sacrifice energy (ATP)

Glucose

2 NAD

2 NADH + 2 H+

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 Pyruvate

slide9

Glucuronic acid

Glucose

Glucitol

oxidized

reduced

To generate ATP or to recycle NAD

Redox state of the carbon source matters

slide10

NADH

+ H+

NADH

+ H+

NAD

NAD

Glucuronic acid

Highly oxidized

Glucitol

Highly reduced

Acetyl-CoA

Pi

NADH + H+

CoASH

NAD + CoASH

ADP

NADH + H+

ATP

NAD

Ethanol

Acetate

To generate ATP or to recycle NAD

Redox state of the carbon source matters

slide11

Getting Glucose In

Phosphosugar Transferase System

PTS

Glucose

CM

EIIC

P

P

EIIB

EIIA

HPr

EI

PEP

P

P

Glucose-6-P

EIIB

EIIA

HPr

EI

Pyr

slide12

pyruvate

PTS

CoASH + NAD

PDHC

CO2 + NADH + H+

Acetyl-CoA

Glycolysis + PTS

Glucose

ATP

ADP

2 T3P

2 NAD

GAPDH

2 NADH + 2 H+

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 PEP

ADP

ATP

Pyruvate

slide13

Low glucose

Sufficient oxygen

High glucose

Sufficient oxygen

Glucose

Glucose

2 NAD

2 NAD

6 ATP +2 NAD

2 NADH + 2 H+

2 NADH + 2 H+

2 ADP

2 ADP

NADH

+ H+

NAD

2 ATP

2 ATP

2 Pyruvate

2 Pyruvate

Lactate

CoASH + NAD

2 CoASH + 2 NAD

6 ATP +2 NAD

CO2 + NADH + H+

2 CO2 + 2 NADH + 2 H+

Acetyl-CoA

2 Acetyl-CoA

CoASH

2 CoASH

ADP

ATP

18 ATP +6 NAD

6 NADH + 6 H+

4 ATP +2 FAD

2 FADH2 + 2 H+

Acetate

2 ATP

38 ATP

Consequences

of the PTS

Aerobic fermentation

Bacterial Crabtree Effect

Overflow metabolism

Mixed acid fermentation

slide14

Consequences of the PTS

mechanism

Glucose

CM

EIIC

P

P

EIIB

EIIA

HPr

EI

PEP

P

P

Glucose-6-P

EIIB

EIIA

HPr

EI

Pyr

6 NADH + 6 H+

2 FADH2 + 2 H+

2 ATP

slide15

Lactose

Inducer exclusion

ATP

cAMP

CRP

lac

AC

More consequences of the PTS

Glucose

CM

EIIC

P

P

EIIB

EIIA

HPr

EI

PEP

P

P

Glucose-6-P

EIIB

EIIA

HPr

EI

Pyr

CM

slide16

PTA

RR

Cellular

Processes

ACK

RR~P

Signaling by

Acetate Fermentation

Acetyl-CoA

Pi

CoASH

Acetyl~P

ADP

ATP

Acetate

slide17

RcsB

RcsB~P

Signaling by

Acetate Fermentation

An example

Acetyl-CoA

Pi

CoASH

Acetyl~P

Capsule

ADP

ATP

Acetate

Flagella

Acetyl~P helps regulate the transition

from free-swimming individual = planktonic

to sessile community = biofilms

slide18

NtrC

NtrC~P

Liao

glnAp2

Signaling by

Acetate Fermentation

Another example

Acetyl-CoA

Pi

CoASH

Acetyl~P

ADP

ATP

Acetate

Acetyl~P helps regulate the transition

from free-swimming individual = planktonic

to sessile community = biofilms

slide19

Pi

AMP

ACS

CoASH

CoASH

Acetyl-AMP

ADP

PPi

ACS

ATP

ATP

Acetate Switch

Glucose

2 NAD

2 NADH + 2 H+

2 ADP

2 ATP

Pyruvate

CoASH + NAD

CO2 + NADH + H+

Acetyl-CoA

Acetyl~P

Acetate

ACS = acetyl-CoA synthetase

slide20

NADH

TCA

MDH

NAD+

GAPDH

glc

NAD+

NADH

NAD+

NADH

CobB

Ac ~

Acs

PAT

Inactive

CobB = Sir2

Acs activity

depends on NAD

Acetyl-CoA

AMP

Acs

CoASH

Ac~AMP

PPi

Acs

ATP

Acetate

Must regenerate NAD – How?

slide21

Regenerating NAD

GAPDH

glc

Pyr

Acetyl-CoA

NAD+

NADH

LDH

Lactate

slide22

NADH

TCA

MDH

crabtree

NAD+

GAPDH

glc

T3P

Acetyl-CoA

AMP

NAD+

NADH

LDH

Acs

AMP

Acs

CoASH

Lactate

CoASH

Ac~AMP

Pta-AckA pathway

Ac~AMP

NAD+

NADH

PPi

CobB

Ac ~

PPi

Acs

Acs

Acs

PAT

ATP

ATP

Ace

Inactive

ADP

ATP

The Whole Shebang