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Railroads Led the Way . Improving the Railroads. Each R/R built it’s own tracks to its own specs no unified code tracks not interchangeable made travel inefficient adopted a standard gauge. Objective : To examine the growth of the railroad industry. T wo problems early railroads had.

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Improving the railroads
Improving the Railroads

  • Each R/R built it’s own tracks to its own specs

  • no unified code

  • tracks not interchangeable

  • made travel inefficient

  • adopted a standard gauge


Railroads led the way

Objective: To examine the growth of the railroad industry.

Two problems early railroads had.

Problems:

1. The South had short rail lines that didn’t form a network.

2. The tracks in the North and the South had different widths, or gauges, so they couldn’t be connected.

Railroads in 1890

Solution:

Southern railroads adopted the rails of the North.


Railroads led the way

Growth of Railroads

- Once the gauge, or width, of tracks was standardized, railroads formed a network, or system of connected lines.

Top: Railroads in 1890

Right: Railroads in 1918


Railroad stimulates the economy
Railroad stimulates the Economy

  • carried raw materials

    • iron ore

    • coal

    • timber

  • carried manufactured goods from factories to market

  • carried produce from farms to cities


Railroad technology
Railroad Technology

  • 4 major technological developments

  • 1. Air brakes-Westinghouse

  • 2. Janney car coupler—Janney

  • 3. Refrigerator Cars—Gustavus Swift

  • 4. Pullman sleeping car—George Pullman

  • next




Railroads change america
Railroads change America

Eastern business started moving West

Redistributed the population

Changed the way people thought of time

How far is it to Tallahassee?

Orlando?

Mobile?

Opened up the United States to economic growth; united different regions of the nation


Railroads led the way

- Large companies bought smaller ones or forced them out of business.

Cornelius Vanderbilt and James Fisk are shown in a race for control of New York's rails. Vanderbilt unsuccessfully tried to take over the Erie R.R. by buying out its stock.



Railroads led the way

+ business.

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Railroads led the way

- Railroad companies began to business.consolidate, or combine, in order to compete with large companies, such as Cornelius Vanderbilt’s.

- Cornelius Vanderbilt was one of the richest men in America, and the most powerful railroad baron.

Cornelius Vanderbilt


Railroads led the way

The Breakers business., Newport, RI


Railroads led the way

The Breakers, business.Newport, RI

- The 1895 Cornelius Vanderbilt II mansion, facing the Atlantic Ocean, is perhaps the finest example of American Renaissance architecture.

- Cornelius Vanderbilt II became the Chairman and President of the New York Central Railroad system in 1885.

- Cornelius Vanderbilt II was the grandson of Cornelius Vanderbilt.

- The Breakers is the grandest of Newport’s summer “cottages” and a symbol of the Vanderbilt family’s social and financial preeminence in turn of the century America.


Railroads led the way

Marble House, business.Newport, RI


Railroads led the way

Marble House, business.Newport, RI

- Completed in 1892 for Mr. and Mrs. William K. Vanderbilt, the interior Marble House is designed almost exclusively of imported Italian marble.

- William K. Vanderbilt was the grandson of Cornelius Vanderbilt.

- The mansion cost $11 million to build, $7 million of which was for the marble.

- The house was given to Mrs. Alva Vanderbilt as a gift on her 39th birthday.

- Alva used the house frequently to hold rallies in support of women’s suffrage.


Railroads led the way

Abuses: business.

- Railroad companies offered rebates, or discounts, in order to keep or win customers.

- This forced many small railroad companies out of business.

- In order to end competition and keep prices high, railroad companies agreed to divide up business in an area and set high prices. This was known as pooling.


Railroads led the way

Effects on Industry: business.

- The railroad industry created thousands of new jobs.

Examples: steelworkers, lumberjacks, miners, railroad workers

- The railroads opened up the country to settlement and growth.

Anti-railroad propaganda


Railroads led the way

Objective: business.To examine the growth of the steel industry in America.

Do Now: Read the following quotations made by Andrew Carnegie.

“I started life as a poor man and I wish to end it that way.”

“The man who dies thus rich, dies disgraced.”

What message was Carnegie trying to make in these quotations, and do you agree with this message? Why, or why not?


Railroads led the way

The Steel Industry business.

1850’s – The Bessemer Process allowed steel to be produced cheaply.

· Therefore, the steel industry grew rapidly.

Examples: railroads, skyscrapers, nails, pins

Bessemer converter, Kelham Island Museum, Sheffield, England (2002)

Henry Bessemer


Railroads led the way

Steel: Vertical Integration business.

Rolling

The billets and slabs are

heated and rolled into

finished products.

Raw Materials

Example: Iron Ore

1

4

Melting

Hot air is pumped into

a furnace, melting iron at

1600 degrees Celsius.

(2,912 degrees F)

Casting

The liquid steel is cast into

billets and slabs.

2

3

Refining

Impurities are removed and alloys

are added from the molten metal

through the use of a ladle.


Railroads led the way

· Scottish immigrant business.Andrew Carnegie became the “King of Steel”, producing the majority of America’s steel.

Andrew Carnegie


Railroads led the way

· Carnegie reportedly gave $350 million of his $400 million fortune to charities, including $60 million to build libraries.

Harper's Weekly April 11, 1903


Railroads led the way

  • Andrew Carnegie’s best known philanthropy was founding libraries.

  • The first was in his hometown, Dunfermline, Scotland, opened in 1881.

  • By 1919, 2,811 libraries had been founded at a total cost of $56,704,188.

  • - U.S. libraries – 1,946

  • - British libraries – 660 (England and Wales, 423; Scotland 147; Ireland 90)

  • - Canadian libraries – 156

  • - New Zealand – 23, South Africa – 13, West Indies – 6, Australia – 4, Seychelles, Mauritius, and Fiji – 1 each


Railroads led the way

Andrew Carnegie in his “Great Double Role” libraries.

This cartoon originally appeared in the July 9, 1892 edition of The Saturday Globe, a pro-union weekly out of Utica, New York.

Caption reads: "Forty-Millionaire Carnegie in his Great Double Role. As the tight-fisted employer he reduces wages that he may play philanthropist and give away libraries, etc.”


Railroads led the way

Objective: libraries. To examine the causes and effects of the Sherman Anti-trust Act.

Do Now: Name as many oil/gas companies as you can.

Sen. John Sherman

John D. Rockefeller

J. Pierpont Morgan


Railroads led the way

Standard Oil Trust libraries.

· John D. Rockefeller formed the Standard Oil trust in 1890.


Railroads led the way

· The Standard Oil trust ended competition, forming a monopoly.

· The Sherman Antitrust Act was passed in 1890, banning the formation of trusts and monopolies.



Railroads led the way

This Harper's Weekly cartoon by W. A. Rogers portrays the rise of the large business corporation ("monopoly") as an illicit enterprise (a pirate ship) which menaces economic competition, and depicts the response of the federal government as woefully inadequate (Uncle Sam shooting a toy cannon).


Railroads led the way

“Congress—Who’s In It and Who Owns It”; cartoon by Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.


Railroads led the way

The Role of Banks Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.

· J. Pierpont Morgan used profits earned as a banker to purchase other major corporations.

· By 1898, Morgan controlled most of the major rail lines in America.

· By 1901, Morgan became head of the U.S. Steel Company, which became the first U.S. company to be worth over $1 billion.


Railroads led the way

An Age of Big Business: Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.

Why an octopus to represent Standard Oil?


Labor troubles 1914
Labor Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.troubles, 1914

  • Early January, 1914: threats of labor troubles – factory workers are tired of the long days and little pay

    • Auto workers experience strain from assembly-line methods

    • Stop going to work in Ford’s factories

    • High turnover (Ford must hire 40,000 workers/year in order to keep 10,000 on the job)

  • Our textbook makes Ford sound like a revolutionary man when he introduces changes to the factory workers’ day on January 5, 1914. But in reality, he had no choice – he was facing a complete shut down of his factories.


Ford if forced to change a new day in the life of a factory worker
Ford if forced to change: Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.A New Day in the Life of a Factory Worker

  • January 5, 1914: Ford changes the day of a factory worker


Were ford s changes as good as they sounded
Were Ford’s changes as good as they sounded? Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.

  • Thousands of people rush to accept Ford’s “changes.”

  • But they find that Ford will pay only $2.60/day, plus a $2.40/day bonus if the worker remains at his automobile plants for 1 year.

  • All workers were required to do the following:

    • No smoking

    • No drinking

    • Must learn English

    • Become US citizens

    • Open bank accounts

Relates to USA population growth at this time

  • Were these demands unreasonable?


Industrial relations
Industrial Relations Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.

  • Ford’s news made the headlines in every major newspaper b/se the changes were so revolutionary for the time.

    • Think back to Britain’s working conditions…

  • Began an era of industrial relations & made automobile workers one of the highest paid groups in the American economy.


  • The ford idea
    The “Ford Idea” Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.

    • Despite the fact that Ford was forced to make changes to his workers’ day, he was credited with making a revolutionary change.

    • Soon other industries implemented the so-called “Ford Idea.”

    • Result: consumer spending began to increase

      • Higher wages => greater purchasing power => increased sale of Ford automobiles


    Philanthropist pacifist
    Philanthropist & Pacifist Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.

    • Henry Ford was both a philanthropist & a pacifist.

    • Ford did not want US to get involved in the world war, but nevertheless changed production in his factories to support the war movement

      • Claimed his automobile plan produced a bomber an hour

  • Ford & Edsel (his son) established the Ford Foundation to donate money to poverty, human rights & justice, education, culture, international affairs, & population issues


  • Railroads led the way

    An Age of Big Business: Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.

    Why an octopus to represent Standard Oil?


    Factors of production
    Factors of Production: Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.

    • Land

    • Labor

    • Capital

      Can you give me examples of each of the above?


    Factors of production1
    Factors of Production Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.


    Railroads led the way
    Land: Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.

    • Productive resources occurring in nature, such as water, soil, plants and minerals.

      Like all factors of production, land is limited. Nature just isn’t inclined to make more resources at the pace producers might want. If a barrel of petroleum is used to produce gasoline, that material is not available to produce something else…

      So, Land resources are found in nature. Examples are soil, water, plants and minerals.


    Labor
    Labor: Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.

    • The productive abilities of people. Labor, or human resources, is also limited.

      These terms refer to the productive abilities of people. Labor, or human resources, is also limited. There are only so many people at any given time. However the skills, knowledge and talents of people can be improved or made more productive through education and training. Labor can also be made more productive through the use of capital. For example, a person with a calculator can do mathematics problems more quickly and accurately than a person without a calculator.

      So, Labor resources are the skills, talent and knowledge provided by people.


    Capital
    Capital: Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.

    • tools, equipment, machines, and buildings that producers use to produce something else

      For example, the machine that is used to smooth the top of a school desk is a capital resource. It is a resource used in the production of the desk. The furniture maker uses the machine to produce desks more efficiently. The producer invested in the machine because this was more productive than hiring many workers to smooth the tops of the desks by hand. Generally, the use of capital makes labor more productive.

      So, Capital resources are goods used to produce other goods and services for consumers.


    Railroads led the way

    CHILD LABOR IN AMERICA AT THE END Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.

    OF THE 19th CENTURY


    Railroads led the way

    THE MILL Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.


    Railroads led the way

    THE MINES Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.


    Railroads led the way

    Objective: Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.To examine the Pullman Strike, women in the labor movement, and the Triangle Fire.

    Do Now: Graph Skills, p.592


    Railroads led the way

    Pullman Strike Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians. – (1893) George Pullman cut the salaries of his workers at his railroad car factory.

    - However, the rent in company owned houses remained the same.

    - Therefore, the workers went on strike.

    Pullman workers walk the short distance to their nearby Pullman-owned homes and apartments after a day of work.


    Railroads led the way

    Jennie Curtiss, a Pullman worker for five years wrote: Jacob Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able to maneuver the politicians.

    My father worked for the Pullman Company for ten years. Last summer he was sick for three months, and in September he died. At the time of his death we owed the Pullman Company about sixty dollars for rent. I was working at the time and they told me I would have to pay that rent, give what I could every pay-day, until it was paid. I did not say I would not pay, but thought rather than be thrown out of work I would pay it. Many a time I have drawn nine and ten dollars for two weeks' work, paid seven dollars for my board and given the Company my remaining two or three dollars on the rents, and I still owe them fifteen dollars. Sometimes when I could not possibly give them anything [because her wage was cut from $.90 to $.20 per section of carpet], I would received slurs and insults from the clerks in the bank, because Mr. Pullman would not give me enough in return for my hard labor to pay the rent for one of his houses and live.


    Railroads led the way

    The entire financial burden was carried by the workers. There were no wage cuts for managers or personnel and there were no reductions in stockholder dividends. There was a rent reduction--for shopkeepers only. Yet, the Pullman Palace Car Company at the time of the strike had a $27,000,000 surplus, capitalization of $30,000,000 and a quarterly dividend of $600,000 in three months.


    Railroads led the way

    1894 – A federal judge issued an injunction against the workers, forcing them back to work.

    - Union leaders were jailed for violating the Sherman Anti-trust Act.


    Railroads led the way

    Women in the Labor Movement workers, forcing them back to work.

    - By 1840, over 1 million women worked in factories.

    - Mother Jones became a labor leader, helping to organize unions nationwide.

    “Pray for the dead and fight like hell for the living.” – Mother Jones


    Railroads led the way

    Triangle Fire workers, forcing them back to work. – (1911) One hundred and fifty people, mostly young women, died in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York City.

    Fire fighters arrived soon after the alarm was sounded but ladders only reached the 6th floor and pumps could not raise water to the highest floors of the 10-story building.  Still the fire was quickly controlled and was essentially extinguished in half an hour.  In this fire-proof building, 146 men, women, and children lost their lives and many others were seriously injured.


    Railroads led the way

    The 240 employees sewing shirtwaists on the ninth floor had their escape blocked by back-to-back chairs and workbaskets in the aisles.  The 75-foot long paired sewing machine tables obstructed essential access to the windows, stairs, and elevators.


    Railroads led the way

    For endless hours, police officers held lanterns to light the bodies while crowds filed past victims laid out in numbered rough brown coffins.  As the dead were identified the coffin was closed and moved aside.  Forty-three were identified by sunrise on Sunday. Six days later 7 were still unrecognized. 


    Railroads led the way

    Labor unions, religious communities, political groups and social reform organizations assembled to mourn the lost lives and demand real progress in worker protection.  At times their differences in methods and priorities threatened to take back gains made in public awareness and the commitment to act.


    Railroads led the way

    Few of the terrified workers on the 9th floor knew that a fire escape was hidden behind iron window shutters. The ladder descended next to the building forcing those fleeing to climb down through flames as they struggled past other shutters stuck open across their path.  The design had been deemed inadequate and the material from which it was made was insubstantial.  After a few made their way down, the heat of the fire and weight of the people caused the ladder to twist and collapse dropping many who had chosen it as their lifeline. 


    Railroads led the way

    Eyewitness at the Triangle fire escape was hidden behind iron window shutters. The ladder descended next to the building forcing those fleeing to climb down through flames as they struggled past other shutters stuck open across their path.  The design had been deemed inadequate and the material from which it was made was insubstantial.  After a few made their way down, the heat of the fire and weight of the people caused the ladder to twist and collapse dropping many who had chosen it as their lifeline. 

    By, William G. Shepherd

    I was walking through Washington Square when a puff of smoke issuing from the factory building caught my eye. I reached the building before the alarm was turned in. I saw every feature of the tragedy visible from outside the building. I learned a new sound--a more horrible sound than description can picture. It was the thud of a speeding, living body on a stone sidewalk.

    Thud—dead, thud—dead, thud—dead, thud—dead. Sixty-two thud—deads. I call them that, because the sound and the thought of death came to me each time, at the same instant. There was plenty of chance to watch them as they came down. The height was eighty feet.

    The first ten thud—deads shocked me. I looked up—saw that there were scores of girls at the windows. The flames


    Railroads led the way

    from the floor below were beating in their faces. Somehow I knew that they, too, must come down, and something within me—something that I didn't know was there—steeled me.

    I even watched one girl falling. Waving her arms, trying to keep her body upright until the very instant she struck the sidewalk, she was trying to balance herself. Then came the thud--then a silent, unmoving pile of clothing and twisted, broken limbs.

    As I reached the scene of the fire, a cloud of smoke hung over the building. . . . I looked up to the seventh floor. There was a living picture in each window—four screaming heads of girls waving their arms.

    "Call the firemen," they screamed—scores of them. "Get a ladder," cried others. They were all as alive and whole and sound as were we who stood on the sidewalk. I couldn't help thinking of that. We cried to them not to jump. We heard the


    Railroads led the way

    siren of a fire engine in the distance. The other sirens sounded from several directions.

    "Here they come," we yelled. "Don't jump; stay there."

    One girl climbed onto the window sash. Those behind her tried to hold her back. Then she dropped into space. I didn't notice whether those above watched her drop because I had turned away. Then came that first thud. I looked up, another girl was climbing onto the window sill; others were crowding behind her. She dropped. I watched her fall, and again the dreadful sound. Two windows away two girls were climbing onto the sill; they were fighting each other and crowding for air. Behind them I saw many screaming heads. They fell almost together, but I heard two distinct thuds. Then the flames burst out through the windows on the floor below them, and curled up into their faces.

    As I reached the scene of the fire, a cloud of smoke


    Railroads led the way

    hung over the building. . . . I looked up to the seventh floor. There was a living picture in each window—four screaming heads of girls waving their arms.

    "Call the firemen," they screamed—scores of them. "Get a ladder," cried others. They were all as alive and whole and sound as were we who stood on the sidewalk. I couldn't help thinking of that. We cried to them not to jump. We heard the siren of a fire engine in the distance. The other sirens sounded from several directions.

    "Here they come," we yelled. "Don't jump; stay there."

    One girl climbed onto the window sash. Those behind her tried to hold her back. Then she dropped into space. I didn't notice whether those above watched her drop because I had turned away. Then came that first thud. I looked up, another girl was climbing onto the window sill; others were crowding behind her. She dropped. I watched her fall, and


    Railroads led the way

    again the dreadful sound. Two windows away two girls were climbing onto the sill; they were fighting each other and crowding for air. Behind them I saw many screaming heads. They fell almost together, but I heard two distinct thuds. Then the flames burst out through the windows on the floor below them, and curled up into their faces.

    The firemen began to raise a ladder. Others took out a life net and, while they were rushing to the sidewalk with it, two more girls shot down.

    The firemen held it under them; the bodies broke it…Before they could move the net another girl's body flashed through it. The thuds were just as loud, it seemed, as if there had been no net there. It seemed to me that the thuds were so loud that they might have been heard all over the city.

    The firemen raised the longest ladder. It reached only to the sixth floor. I saw the last girl jump at it and miss it. And


    Railroads led the way

    then the faces disappeared from the window. But now the crowd was enormous, though all this had occurred in less than seven minutes, the start of the fire and the thuds and deaths.

    I heard screams around the corner and hurried there. What I had seen before was not so terrible as what had followed. Up in the [ninth] floor girls were burning to death before our very eyes. They were jammed in the windows. No one was lucky enough to be able to jump, it seemed. But, one by one, the jams broke. Down came the bodies in a shower, burning, smoking—flaming bodies, with disheveled hair trailing upward. They had fought each other to die by jumping instead of by fire. The whole, sound, unharmed girls who had jumped on the other side of the building had tried to fall feet down. But these fire torches, suffering ones, fell inertly, only intent that death should come to them on the sidewalk instead of in the furnace behind them.


    Railroads led the way

    On the sidewalk lay heaps of broken bodies. A policeman later went about with tags, which he fastened with wires to the wrists of the dead girls, numbering each with a lead pencil, and I saw him fasten tag no. 54 to the wrist of a girl who wore an engagement ring. A fireman who came downstairs from the building told me that there were at least fifty bodies in the big room on the seventh floor. Another fireman told me that more girls had jumped down an air shaft in the rear of the building. I went back there, into the narrow court, and saw a heap of dead girls. . . .

    The floods of water from the firemen's hose that ran into the gutter were actually stained red with blood. I looked upon the heap of dead bodies and I remembered these girls were the shirtwaist makers. I remembered their great strike of last year in which these same girls had demanded more sanitary conditions and more safety precautions in the shops. These dead bodies were the answer.