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Rezumat al lucrarii: "Saving New Brain Cells", Scientific American , March 2009 [pdf]. Cum putem salva neuronii noi formati?. Madalina Dana Preda Master IMC an I - 2009.

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cum putem salva neuronii noi formati

Rezumat al lucrarii:

"Saving New Brain Cells", Scientific American, March 2009 [pdf]

Cum putem salva neuronii noi formati?

Madalina Dana Preda

Master IMC an I - 2009

slide2

<<Tracey J. Shors,a professor in the department of psychology and the Center for Collaborative Neuroscience at Rutgers University, has had a long-standing interest in the neurobiology of learning and memory. Working with Elizabeth Gould of Princeton University, a discoverer of adult neurogenesis, Shors showed that learning enhances the survival of new neurons in the hippocampus and that these neural recruits seem to be involved in some aspects of learning. Some 10 years later Shors continues to ponder the question: “Neurogenesis: What’s learning got to do with it?”<<

Scientific American, Martie 2009, pgs.46-53

slide3

Mii de noi neuroni sunt generati in creierul uman al unui adult in fiecare zi .

  • Acesti neuroni apar cu precadere in hipocampus- zona implicata in invatare si memorare.

http://www.stiinta.info/the-brain-book---cartea-creierului-----o-carte-fascinant%EF%BF%BD%C6%92-despre-anatomia-creierului-uman/news/1050/103/

rezultatele experimentale
Rezultateleexperimentale
  • La rozatoare apar aproximativ 5-10.000 de neuroni in hipocampus. La om nu se cunoaste inca prea bine numarul.
  • De ce produce creierul noi neuroni daca acestia dispar foarte rapid?
      • Raspunsul pare a fi: pentru orice eventualitate.
rezultatele experimentale1
Rezultateleexperimentale
  • Din experimete cu rozatoare, bazate pe “clipirea conditionata” s-a concluzionat ca cu cat invatatul cu este mai solicitant cu atat creste mai mult rata de supraviatuire a neuronilor.
  • S-a inceput cu un experiment clasic in care animalul aude un sunet, iar dupa o jumatate de secunda primeste un stimul care il face sa clipeasca - dupa sute de teste animalele invata sa clipeasca inainte de stimul.
rezultatele experimentale la sobolani
In cazul invatarii lejere, cu efort mic sau mediu, nu se salveaza niciun neuron din noii neuroni.

In cazul invatarii cu efort mare este salvat un procent semnificativ de neuroni.

In cazul invatarii cu efort foarte mare este salvat cel mai mare procent de neuroni noi.

Rezultateleexperimentale la sobolani

timp

Greu

timp

Usor

timp

Foarte

greu

cum ajuta invatarea in salvarea noilor neuroni
Cum ajutainvatarea in salvareanoilorneuroni?
  • In prima saptamana de viata neuronii noi formati migreaza din girusul zimtat in arii mai profunde ale creierului, unde devin maturi si se integreaza in reteaua neuronala.
  • In absenta invatatii in perioada de maturare acesti neuroni mor.
slide8

-IN APROXIMATIV 2 SAPTAMANI NEURONII NOI FORMATI MOR DACA NU SUNT FOLOSITI PENTRU A INVATA CEVA NOU.-CU CAT PROBLEMELE INVATATE SUNT MAI SOLICITANTE CU ATAT RATA DE SUPAVIETUIRE A NEURONILOR ESTE MAI MARE.

ce ajuta si ce dauneaza
Ceajutasicedauneaza?
  • Invatarea ajuta la suprevietuirea noilor celule aparute, dar nu influenteaza numarul noilor neuroni aparuti.

Potentiatori: Blocanti:

- Exercitiile fizice- Alcoolul

- Antidepresivele - Nicotina

- Coacazele

ar putea neurogeneza sa ajute in tratarea declinului cognitiv
Arputeaneurogenezasaajute in tratareadeclinuluicognitiv?
  • Nu se pot formula ipoteze clare privind acest aspect inca.
  • Antidepresivele sunt modulatoare puternice ale neurogenezei, cu toate acestea nu pot anihila efectele unei boli care are ca efect declinul cognitiv.
  • Totusi orice activitate noua de invatare mentine creierul in forma.
  • “Use it or loose it!”
referinte
Referinte

Learning Enhances Adult Neurogenesis inthe Hippocampal Formation. Elizabeth Gould, Anna Beylin, Patima Tanapat, Alison Reeves and Tracey J. Shors in Nature Neuroscience, Vol. 2, No. 3, pages 260–265; March 1999.

Neurogenesis in the Adult Is Involved in the Formation of Trace Memories. Tracey J. Shors, George Miesegaes, Anna Beylin, Mingrui Zhao, Tracy Rydel and Elizabeth Gould in Nature, Vol. 410, pages 372–376; March 15, 2001.

Neurogenesis, Learning and Associative Strength. Jaylyn Waddell and Tracey J. Shors in European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 27, No. 11, pages 3020–3028; June 2008.