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Cells - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Cells. The Universal Subunits of Life. Cellular Structure. all life is cellular Cell Theory Cells are the fundamental units of life. All organisms are composed of cells. All cells come from preexisting cells.

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cells

Cells

The Universal Subunits of Life

cellular structure
Cellular Structure
  • all life is cellular
  • Cell Theory
    • Cells are the fundamental units of life.
    • All organisms are composed of cells.
    • All cells come from preexisting cells.
  • each cell possesses the different molecules necessary for sustaining life & specializations (≥10,000)
cellular structure1
Cellular Structure
  • all life is cellular
    • all cells belong to one of two structural categories
      • prokaryotic cells - relatively simple
      • eukaryotic cells - more complex
cellular structure2
Cellular Structure
  • prokaryotic cells
    • cytoplasm surrounded by plasma membrane
      • cytosol + insoluble particles
    • DNA in nucleoid
    • no membrane-bound organelles
    • cell wall (most)
    • complex, highly regulated metabolism
    • distinguished by many non-universal characteristics
cellular structure3
Cellular Structure
  • eukaryotic cells
    • larger, but still small
cellular structure4
Cellular Structure
  • eukaryotic cells
    • larger, but still small
    • plasma membrane
    • cytoskeleton
    • membrane-bound organelles
slide12
cell fractionationby centrifugationpermits biochemical analysisthat supplements microscopic observationsFigure 4.8
organelle functions
Organelle Functions
  • information processing organelles
    • nucleus
      • an envelope of two membranes
        • perforated by pores
        • the outer membrane is linked to the ER
      • contains
        • nucleoplasm
        • chromatin
        • nucleoli
organelle functions1
Organelle Functions
  • information processing organelles
    • nucleus
    • chloroplasts (cp) & mitochondria (mt)
      • contain DNA like prokaryotic cells
      • express some essential proteins
organelle functions2
Organelle Functions
  • information processing organelles
    • nucleus
    • chloroplasts (cp) & mitochondria (mt)
    • ribosomes
      • complex RNA-protein bodies
      • translate instructions into polypeptides
      • in cytoplasm, on ER, in cp & mt
organelle functions3
Organelle Functions
  • energy processing organelles
    • mitochondria
      • major site of oxidative energy production
      • two membranes surround aqueous matrix that contains energy-processing enzymes
      • the highly folded inner membrane (cristae) bears energy-processing enzymes
slide19

chromoplasts

leucoplasts

Figure 4.17

organelle functions4
Organelle Functions
  • energy processing organelles
    • mitochondria
    • plastids
      • a two-membrane envelope
      • store/produce energy or display colors
      • chloroplasts
        • thylakoid membranes are suspended in the stroma
        • each contains enzymes of energy production
organelle functions5
Organelle Functions
  • the endomembrane system
    • a system of interacting membranes located throughout the cell
      • endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
        • continuous with the nuclear outer membrane
        • the membrane encloses the lumen
        • translates & processes proteins headed for organelles, membranes, outside
        • RER (rough), SER (smooth)
organelle functions6
Organelle Functions
  • endomembrane system
    • interacting membrane organelles throughout the cell
      • endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
      • Golgi apparatus
        • flattened sacks (cisternae) + vesicle shuttles
        • proteins travel from ER to cis face to trans face
organelle functions7
Organelle Functions
  • endomembrane system
    • interacting membrane organelles throughout the cell
      • endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
      • Golgi apparatus
      • lysosome
        • vesicle with digestive enzymes
        • fuses with phagosome
organelle functions8
Organelle Functions
  • other organelles
    • peroxisome
      • detoxifies peroxides
organelle functions9
Organelle Functions
  • other organelles
    • peroxisome
      • detoxifies peroxides
    • glyoxysome (plants only)
      • converts lipids to carbohydrates
    • vacuole (plants)
      • maintains turgor pressure
      • stores reserves, wastes
      • visual attractant (anthocyanins)
extracellular structures
Extracellular Structures
  • plant, fungi cell wall
    • prevents cell from bursting
extracellular structures1
Extracellular Structures
  • plant, fungi cell wall
  • animal extracellular matrix
    • secreted by adjacent cells
    • differs from tissue to tissue