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Elements of Persuasion • The message content - Reason versus emotion -Discrepancy -One-sided versus two-sided appeal -Primacy versus recency - Inductive reasoning - Deductive reasoning - Fallacies of faulty reasoning
The Message Content Reason versus emotion well educated and analytical people are more persuaded by rational appeals. Less -educated and less analytical people are more persuaded by emotional appeals.
The Message Content One-sided versus two-sided appeals A one-sided appeal is more effective with people who agree with the appeal. A two-sided appeal is more effective with people who disagree with the appeal. If people are aware of opposing arguments, two-sided appeals are more effective.
The Message Content Primacy versus recency Primacy effect-other things being equal, information presented first usually has the most information. Recency effect -information presented last has the most information. Recency effect are less common than primacy effects.
The Message Content Deductive Reasoning An audience is asked to start with a generalization and draw a conclusion about a specific instance. Eg: we are asked to deduce that IMF’s successful program that has worked in Thailand will also work in Malaysia.
The Message Content Inductive Reasoning Receivers would be asked to begin with a specific case and derive a generalization. Eg: we might be asked to conclude that because RELA program reduced crime in certain neighborhood, it is reasonable to conclude that RELA programs will reduce crime at all places.
The Message Content Fallacies Are types of faulty reasoning. Normally due to careless thinking or sometimes used deliberately (propaganda & advertising).
Examples of fallacies 1. Ad hominem. Latin for ‘to the man’. An argument that attacks the person rather than the issues. - Our new professor looks like Homer S. How can we take him seriously? 2. An appeal to pity. - I deserve a raise. My car is in the workshop, got three kids to look after. 3. Bandwagon fallacy- because everyone is doing it. - 95% students have camera phone
Examples of fallacies 4. Begging the question- restates in the conclusion what has been asserted in the premise. - Because women are not well suited for fighting, they do not do well in combat duty in the armed forces. 5. The either/or fallacy- when one assumes that only two alternatives are possible, when others exist. - A new car may be expensive, but do you want me to drive around in this junk pile.
Tutorial 5 • Bring to class cuttings of advertisements, articles, editorials etc; that contain fallacies. • Highlight the fallacies. • Explain why you consider them as a fallacy. • Would you have written it otherwise?