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METHODS OF PERSUASION. METHODS OF PERSUASION. 4 Reasons Listeners Are Persuaded:. METHODS OF PERSUASION. Because They Perceive The Speaker As Having High Credibility. METHODS OF PERSUASION. Because They Are Won Over By The Speaker’s Evidence. METHODS OF PERSUASION.

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methods of persuasion

METHODS OFPERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

methods of persuasion2
METHODS OF PERSUASION
  • 4 Reasons Listeners Are Persuaded:

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

methods of persuasion3
METHODS OF PERSUASION
  • Because They Perceive The Speaker As Having High Credibility

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

methods of persuasion4
METHODS OF PERSUASION
  • Because They Are Won Over By The Speaker’s Evidence

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

slide5

METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Because They Are Convinced By The Speaker’s Reasoning
slide6

METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Because Their Emotions Are Touched By The Speaker’s Ideas Or Language
methods of persuasion7
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Building Credibility
methods of persuasion8
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Ethos
    • Aristotle’s Term For What Modern Students Of Communication Call Credibility
methods of persuasion9
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Ethos
      • In A Given Situation, On A Given Topic, How Credible Is The Speaker Perceived To Be
      • Speaker Credibility Varies From Audience To Audience & From Topic To Topic
methods of persuasion10
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Credibility
    • The Audience’s Attitude Toward Or Perception Of The Speaker’s Qualifications To Speak On A Particular Topic
methods of persuasion11
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Two Major Factors Influencing Credibility:
    • Competence
    • Character
methods of persuasion12
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Competence
    • Audience’s Regard Of A Speaker’s Intelligence, Expertise, & Knowledge Of The Subject
methods of persuasion13
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Character
    • Audience’s Regard Of A Speaker’s Sincerity, Trustworthiness, & Concern For The Well-being Of The Audience
methods of persuasion14
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Three Types of Credibility:
    • Initial Credibility
    • Derived Credibility
    • Terminal Credibility
methods of persuasion15
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Initial Credibility
    • Audience Perception Of The Speaker Before The Speech Begins
methods of persuasion16
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Derived Credibility
    • Produced By Everything A Speaker Says And Does During The Speech
methods of persuasion17
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Terminal Credibility
    • Audience Perception Of The Speaker At The End Of A Speech
methods of persuasion18
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • 3 Strategies To Enhance Credibility
methods of persuasion19
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Explain Competence
    • Stress Research
    • Stress Personal Knowledge Gained Through Experience
methods of persuasion20
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Establish A Common Ground
    • Show Respect For & Identify With Audience Values & Beliefs
      • Especially Important During The Introduction Of A Persuasive Speech
methods of persuasion21
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Deliver Speeches Fluently, Expressively, & With Conviction
    • Research Shows That Fluent Delivery & Conviction Of Ideas Greatly Strengthens Speaker Credibility
methods of persuasion22
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Using Evidence
methods of persuasion23
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Evidence
    • Examples
    • Statistics
    • Testimony
      • Used To Prove Or Disprove Something
methods of persuasion24
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • To Be Persuasive, Speakers Must Support Their Views With Evidence
methods of persuasion25
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Careful Listeners Are Skeptical Of Unsupported Claims
methods of persuasion26
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Strong Evidence Becomes Particularly Important When The Speaker Is Not Recognized As An Expert On The Speech Topic
methods of persuasion27
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Strong Evidence Is Crucial When The Target Audience Opposes The Speaker’s Point Of View
methods of persuasion28
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • 4 Tips For Using Evidence:
methods of persuasion29
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Use Specific Evidence
    • Evidence Is More Persuasive When Stated In Specific, Rather Than General, Terms
methods of persuasion30
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Use Specific Evidence
    • Specific Evidence Enhances Speaker Credibility By Demonstrating The Speaker’s Grasp Of The Material
methods of persuasion31
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Use Novel Evidence
    • Evidence Is More Persuasive When It Is New To The Audience
methods of persuasion32
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Use Novel Evidence
    • Providing The Audience With New Facts & Figures Requires Resourceful Research, But Is Well Worth The Effort
methods of persuasion33
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Use Evidence From Credible Sources
    • Evidence From Competent, Credible Sources Is More Persuasive
methods of persuasion34
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Use Evidence From Credible Sources
    • Listeners Are Skeptical Of Sources That Appear To Be Biased
methods of persuasion35
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Make Clear The Point Of The Evidence
    • Speakers Cannot Count On Listeners To, On Their Own, Draw The Conclusion The Speaker Wants Them To Reach
methods of persuasion36
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Make Clear The Point Of The Evidence
    • Speakers Need To State The Points They Are Trying To Make With The Evidence
methods of persuasion37
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Using Reasoning
methods of persuasion38
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Reasoning
    • The Process Of Drawing A Conclusion Based On Evidence
methods of persuasion39
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • 2 Major Concerns:
    • Make Sure Reasoning Is Sound
    • Get Listeners To Agree With Speaker’s Reasoning
methods of persuasion40
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Use Reasoning From Specific Instances
    • Progress From Particular Facts To General Conclusion
methods of persuasion41
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Guidelines For Use Of Reasoning From Specific Instances:
methods of persuasion42
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Beware Of Hasty Generalizations Based Upon Insufficient Evidence
  • Don’t Overstate The Facts
  • Reinforce The Argument With Statistics Or Testimony
methods of persuasion43
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Use Reasoning From Principle
    • Move From A General Principle To A Specific Conclusion
methods of persuasion44
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • 2 Basic Guidelines For Reasoning From Principle:
methods of persuasion45
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Make Certain That The Audience Will Accept The General Principle
methods of persuasion46
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Make Sure The Audience Will Accept The Minor Premise
methods of persuasion47
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Use Causal Reasoning
    • Tries To Establish A Relationship Between Causes And Effects
methods of persuasion48
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Guidelines For Using Causal Reasoning:
methods of persuasion49
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Avoid The Fallacy Of The False Cause
        • “Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc”
          • “After This, Therefore Because Of This”
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METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Avoid The Fallacy Of Assuming That Events Have Only One Cause
    • Most Events Have Several Causes
    • Don’t Oversimplify
methods of persuasion51
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Use Analogical Reasoning
    • Compare Two SimilarCases — Make The Analogy That What Is True For One Case Is True For The Other
methods of persuasion52
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Guidelines For Using Analogical Reasoning
methods of persuasion53
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Make Sure The Two Cases Being Compared Are Essentially Alike
    • If The 2 Cases Are Essentially Alike — Analogy Is Valid
    • If The 2 Cases Are Not Essentially Alike — Analogy Is Invalid
methods of persuasion54
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Persuasive Speakers Must Guard Against All Logical Fallacies In Their Speeches
methods of persuasion55
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Logical Fallacies To Avoid:
methods of persuasion56
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Hasty Generalization
  • False Cause
  • Invalid Analogy
  • Red Herring Fallacy
methods of persuasion57
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Ad Hominem Fallacy
  • Either-Or Fallacy
  • The Bandwagon Fallacy
  • Slippery Slope Fallacy
methods of persuasion58
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • EMOTIONAL APPEALS
methods of persuasion59
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Intended To Make Audience Members Feel Angry, Guilty, Fearful, Reverent, Etc.
  • Persuasion Often Requires Emotional Appeal
methods of persuasion60
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • 3 Methods Of Generating Emotional Appeal:
    • Emotionally-Charged Language
    • Vivid Examples
    • Sincerity & Conviction
methods of persuasion61
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Because Emotional Appeals Have So Much Persuasive Power, Speakers Must Use Them Ethically
methods of persuasion62
METHODS OF PERSUASION

KimAlyse Popkave, M.Ed., CMI, CPPC Instructor

  • Emotional Appeals Must Be Appropriate To The Topic
  • Emotional Appeals Should NeverBe Substituted For Reasoning And Evidence