Nutrition: Activity • As a class, we will make a list of our FAVORITE foods • Then, try to guess which ones are healthy (we will circle these) • Why did you pick these foods?
Nutrition • Now we are going to learn how to actually define “HEALTHY” vs “Non-Healthy” foods
Nutrition • Nutrition = the process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and replacement of tissues • Proper nutrition can: • Reduce the likelihood of injury and illness • Speed the healing process of injury and illness • Increase energy • Improve athletic performance • Enhance mood • Regulate weight
Nutrition • The big question: • Why do we need food??? • ENERGY!!!
Nutrition and Energy • Energy = the power used to do work (or to produce heat or light) • Energy cannot be created or destroyed • It can only be changed from one form to another • Ex: When coal burns, the energy stored in the chemical form is converted to heat and light
Nutrition and Energy • Living plants are able to use and convert solar energy by a process called photosynthesis • Animals use chemical energy found in plants or other animals • They can oxidize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins • This produces energy, carbon dioxide, and water
Nutrition and Energy • Energy is needed for: • Body functions • Ex: breathing, beating heart, body temperature • Active movement • Ex: muscle contractions (running, jumping, walking, etc.) • Growth and repair • Ex: muscular, skeletal, tissue, etc.
Nutrition and Calories • The use of energy always produces heat • In nutrition, energy is measured in CALORIES
Nutrition and Calories • What exactly is a Calorie? • Calorie = the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 14.5 to 15.5 degrees Celsius • That is why we say that we “burn” calories • (In reality we are converting energy stored into body functions or active movement)
How Many Calories? • The “average” recommended diet is 2,000 calories per day • This number varies based on: • Age • Gender • Health issues • Physical activity
How Many Calories? • Why do young people need more calories? • Their tissue, bones, muscles are still growing! • Why do athletes need more calories? • They are constantly converting calories into energy for athletic performance! • Ex: Michael Phelps claims to maintain a 12,000 calorie/day diet
What should be in thoseCalories? • Before we talk about weight loss, weight gain, and counting calories….we need to address: • What should we eat???
What to Eat • The human body must have a balanced diet consisting of the following 7 food components or nutrients: • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Fats • Vitamins • Minerals • Water • Fiber • Without these, the body will not be able to grow, repair, and maintain body tissues
What Did You Eat Last Night? • As a class, make a list of what everyone ate last night • Highlight the “healthy” choices • (Hopefully each day we will get closer to knowing how to label these healthy options)
What is in Your Food? • Now let’s define what each nutrient is and how it affects your body • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Fats • Vitamins • Minerals • Water • Fiber
Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates = the body’s primary source of fuel for energy • Carbs make glucose which is the fuel that gives you energy and keeps everything going
Carbohydrates • You can find carbohydrates in the following: • Fruits • Vegetables • Breads, cereals, and other grains • Milk and milk products • Foods containing added sugars (e.g., cakes, cookies, and sugar-sweetened beverages).
Carbohydrates • Simple Carbs = added sugars • “Empty” calories • Provide energy but no nutrients • Complex carbs = starches • Provide energy AND vitamins, minerals, fiber • Ex: vegetables and grains
Carbohydrates • Nutritionists recommend that 45-50% of daily calories come from carbohydrate sources • Bulk should be from complex carbs • Veggies, grains, fruits • Minimize simple carbs • Candy, ice cream, sweet beverages, etc.
Carbohydrates • So if you are maintaining a 2,000 calorie/day diet…about how many of those calories should come from carbohydrates? • Remember, however, think: • Vegetables • Fruits • Grains
Increasing Carbohydrates • Some healthy foods that are high in quality carbohydrates: • Apples • Bananas • Corn • Squash • Dried fruits (raisins, cranberries) • Granola or oatmeal • Whole grain choices
Decreasing Carbohydrates • Some healthy foods with low amounts of carbohydrates: • Leafy greens • Broccoli • Spinach wrap (instead of bread) • Strawberry or Kiwi • Lean meats • Seafood • Egg whites
Activity: Carbohydrates • As a class, make a list of simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates • Name some ways that you can start substituting complex carbs for simple ones for the following meals: • Breakfast • Lunch • Snack • Dinner • Dessert
Proteins • Protein = an essential nutrient that contains nitrogen and helps the body grow, build, and repair tissue • Protein is found in every cell and tissue in the human body
Proteins • Proteins are made of amino acids • There are 20 amino acids and 9 are required in the human body • These are called “essential” amino acids
Proteins • A “complete protein” contains all the 9 essential amino acids • Complete Proteins: eggs, meat, fish, poultry, cheese and milk • Incomplete Proteins: fruits, veggies, grains, and beans
Proteins • In other words… • Animal proteins are usually complete proteins • Plant proteins are usually incomplete proteins • THEREFORE, vegetarians must maintain a very well-balanced diet that incorporates all of the essential amino acids
How Much Protein Do I Need? • (Body weight/2.2 ) x 0.8 = recommended AVERAGE grams of protein per day • This means that you need 0.8 grams of protein per kg of body weight • **Athletes need more for tissue repair!!**
Fats • Dietary fat is required to: • Carry vitamins through the blood • Insulate body tissues • Provide energy
Fats • Fats and oils are composed of basic units called “fatty acids” • The following types of fat all contain different mix of fatty acids: • Saturated • Monounsaturated • Polyunsaturated • Trans
Fats • Saturated Fatty Acid= mostly found in animal sources • Monounsaturated Fatty Acid = mostly found in vegetable, olive, and peanut oils • Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid = mostly found in seafood • Trans Fatty Acid = mostly found in processed food such as margarine and snack foods
Fats: How Much Should I Eat? • Total fat intake should be no more than 30% of total daily calories • Saturated fat intake should stay under 10% • While fats are an integral part of a well-balanced diet, they should be limited
How to Limit Fat Intake • Limit amounts of red meat • Choose low-fat or non-fat dairy products • Remove skin from poultry • Decrease or eliminate fried foods, butter, margarine • Cook with small amounts of olive oil instead of butter
Fats: Quick Assignment • Using the internet, complete the following assignment: • Identify 5 foods that you enjoy that are HIGH in fat content • Identify 5 foods that you enjoy that are LOW in fat content
Vitamins • Vitamins = complex organic substances that the body needs in small amounts • Most vitamins cannot be manufactured by the body and must be provided by your diet
Vitamins • Vitamins have a variety of healthy functions in the body • If the body lacks vitamins, deficiencies or disease can develop
Vitamins • Vitamins are grouped into 2 categories: • Fat-soluble • Too much can cause toxicity • Water-soluble • Too much will be excreted in the urine
Fat-Soluble Vitamins • Found in foods such as: meats, liver, dairy, eggs, and green vegetables • Vitamin A (retinol) • Vitamin D (calciferol) • Vitamin E (tocopherol) • Vitamin K1 (phytonadione) • Vitamin K2 (menaquinones) • Vitamin K3 (menadione)
Water-Soluble Vitamins • Found in foods such as: whole grain cereals, leafy green vegetables, fruits, and legumes • Folic Acid • Nicotinic Acid (niacin) • Vitamin B1 (thiamine hydrochloride) • Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) • Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride) • Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Vitamins: Assignment • Use the internet to fill out the Vitamin chart
Minerals • Inorganic substances that are needed for proper growth, development, and health • If a body needs more than milligrams of an inorganic substance in a day…it is known as a “MINERAL” • If less is needed = “trace element”
Minerals • Minerals are needed to: • Transport oxygen • Stimulate muscles to contract • Maintain CNS function
Minerals • Examples of minerals that are critical in a well-rounded diet: • Calcium • Phosphorus • Potassium • Sodium • Iron • Zinc
Minerals: Assignment • Use the internet to complete the minerals assignment to the best of your ability
Vitamins & Minerals: Assignment • 1.) Go to the following website: • http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/health_advice/facts/vitamins_which.htm • 2.) For each vitamin and mineral you will need to identify: • Signs of deficiency • Good sources
Water • The most important, yet often neglected, nutrient • No water = death • Limited water = body will suffer
Water • Water is in the bloodstream (circulating throughout the body) • Water helps to: • Regulate temperature • Transport nutrients • Eliminate toxins and waste • Maintain proper metabolism
Water • Fluid Loss • 2-3 % of body weight = impaired performance • 7-10% of body weight = can be fatal