Nutrition and physical activity
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Nutrition and Physical Activity. Chapter 13. Fitness. Depends on physical activity and exercise (not body type!) Regular physical activity Promotes health Reduces risk of developing many diseases Heart disease Cancer Stroke Diabetes Hypertension . More Benefits of Fitness.

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  • Depends on physical activity and exercise (not body type!)

  • Regular physical activity

    • Promotes health

    • Reduces risk of developing many diseases

      • Heart disease

      • Cancer

      • Stroke

      • Diabetes

      • Hypertension

More benefits of fitness
More Benefits of Fitness

  • Restful sleep

  • Nutritional health

  • Optimal body composition

  • Optimal bone density

  • Resistance to infectious diseases

  • Lower incidence of anxiety & depression

  • Lower risk for some types of cancer

  • Strong circulation & lung function

  • Stress reduction

  • Cortisol reduction

  • Strong self image

  • Lower risk of dementia

How much should i do
How much should I do?

  • Highly individual

  • Just 15-20 min/day starts to reduce disease risk

  • Minimum for optimal health: 2.5 hrs moderate or 1.25 hrs vigorous activity

    • Not an upper limit!

    • Good to spread out over the week

  • How much is too much?

Developing fitness
Developing Fitness

  • Minimizing risk of overuse injuries

    • Be active all week

    • Use proper equipment and attire

    • Use proper form

    • Include warm-up and cool-down activities

    • Challenge your strength and endurance a few times a week

      • Mix it up!

    • Pay attention to body signals

Developing fitness1
Developing Fitness

  • Muscle conditioning

    • Fit muscles use oxygen efficiently

    • Increased mitochondria and vasculature

      • Reduces heart’s workload

      • Burns fat longer

  • Balanced fitness program

    • Activities you enjoy doing

    • Addresses all aspects of fitness

      • Strength, endurance, flexibility

      • Each has specific benefits

Resistance training
Resistance Training

  • Purpose

    • Build muscle mass

      • Increases metabolism!

    • Develop and maintain muscle strength, muscle power, and muscle endurance

  • Benefits for prevention of chronic diseases

  • Maximizes and maintains bone mass

  • Improves posture & reduces risk of back injury

Nutrition physical performance
Nutrition & Physical Performance

  • Performance and recovery both enhanced by optimal nutrition

    • We need all essential nutrients to power movement

  • 3 energy systems:

    • ATP-CP, lactic acid, and oxygen

    • All 3 systems always active and work together

  • ATP-CP (creatine phosphate)

    • Stores of ATP and CP only power muscles 3-15 seconds

    • Muscle and liver glycogen needed to continue contraction

Creatine phosphate
Creatine Phosphate

  • Popular supplement (ergogenic aid)

  • Studies show improvement in muscle strength and power

  • No benefit for aerobic training

  • Possible side effects:

    • Weight gain (water retention)

    • GI symptoms: nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain

    • Rash, anxiety, headache, fatigue

    • Not appropriate for people with kidney issues

    • Should be avoided in children, adolescents, pregnant women, nursing mothers, diabetics

Anaerobic vs aerobic
Anaerobic vs. Aerobic

  • Anaerobic activities and fatigue

    • Lactic acid energy system

    • Anaerobic glycolysis leads to drop in pH

    • Impairs glycolysis, inhibits binding of calcium

  • Aerobic activities and endurance

    • Oxygen energy system

    • Oxidative metabolism of energy nutrients

    • Increased blood flow to muscles: oxygen!

    • Produces much more ATP, but at slower rate

      • Uses glucose and fatty acids


  • As long as ATP supply meets energy needs, activity can continue

    • Rate/intensity of activity influences energy system used

  • Anaerobic exercise: CP and glycogen rapidly depleted

    • Level of training highly influences shift to anaerobic metabolism

    • Number of mitochondria and efficiency of oxygen delivery increase with training

Glucose use during pa
Glucose Use During PA

  • Exertion

    • Liver breaks down glycogen

      • Release glucose into bloodstream

    • Muscles use glucose and stored glycogen

      • Muscle fatigue when glycogen is depleted

  • Glycogen storage: limited

  • Intensity of activity

    • Impacts how long glycogen will last

  • CHO post-workout restores glycogen, spares muscle tissue

Protein use pa
Protein Use & PA

  • Not a significant part of fuel mix for most

  • Used in muscle building

    • Synthesis suppressed during activity; accelerates afterward

    • High-quality protein consumption

      • Enhances muscle protein synthesis

      • What is a high-quality protein?

  • Protein needs are higher for endurance and strength athletes

    • Need adequate CHO, as well…why?

Recommended protein intakes for athletes
Recommended Protein Intakes for Athletes

  • Endurance athlete: 1.2-1.4 g/kg body weight

  • Strength athlete: 1.6-1.7 g/kg body weight

  • Everyday adults: minimum of 0.8 g/kg body weight

  • Max. usable amount for adults: 2.0 g/kg body weight

  • Risks of excessive protein intake

    • Dehydration

    • Mineral losses

Vitamins and minerals to support activity
Vitamins and Minerals to Support Activity

  • Roles in supporting activity

    • Assist in releasing energy from fuels

    • Transport of oxygen

      • Multiple vitamins and minerals, as well as protein, involved!

  • Supplements

    • Vast majority do not enhance performance of well-nourished people

Fluids and electrolytes to support activity
Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity

  • Fluid replacement via hydration

    • Hydrate before activity

      • Drink extra fluid in the days before event

    • Rehydrate during and after activity

  • Fluids for everyday, active people

    • Plain, cool water

  • Fluids for endurance athletes

    • May benefit from mineral and CHO-containing beverages

Sports drinks vs water
Sports Drinks vs. Water

  • Sports drinks

    • Hydration is critical to optimal performance

      • Water is best for most people

  • Sport drinks offer the following

    • Fluid

    • Glucose

    • Sodium and other electrolytes

    • Some prefer the flavor

Dietary strategies for active people
Dietary Strategies for Active People

  • Hydrate

    • Thirst is a late signal of need

  • Choose nutrient-dense foods

    • Vitamins & minerals

  • Consume adequate energy

    • Need all energy-yielding nutrients

      • CHO, protein, and fat

    • Meal frequency and balance

      • Stable blood glucose means stable energy levels

      • Optimal maintenance of lean tissues

Timing of meals
Timing of Meals

  • 30 min-1 hour pre-workout

    • Protein-based snack or small meal

      • Timing is individual

      • Not for everyone! Depends on GI picture.

  • During workout

    • Sip water

  • Post-workout

    • Best time to consume CHO-rich foods

    • Include protein! Balance.

  • Fitness goals: highly individual!

    • Timing strategies vary depending on goal

    • Ex: carbohydrate loading