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Fungi

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  1. Fungi

  2. Learning Objectives • Define the terms: saprophytic & parasitic • State the structure & life cycle of Rhizopus • Explain nutrition in fungi. • Outline the structure & reproduction of Yeast • Name 2 Beneficial & 2 Harmful fungi • Mention that there are Edible and Poisonous fungi • Identify and state functions for the following structures: rhizoid, sporangium, gametangium, zygospore.

  3. Features of Fungi • They do not make their own food • They are mostly multi-cellular • They are made up of threads called hyphae • Hyphae combine in masses to form a mycelium • Their walls are made of a carbohydrate called chitin

  4. Nutrition • All fungi are heterotrophs i.e. they take in food made by other organisms Fungi are either: • Parasitic • Saprophytic

  5. Saprophytic fungi • Most fungi are saprophytic • obtain nutrients from dead material • As they digest it minerals are released and recycled • Play a vital role in the environment as they are responsible for decay • E.g. mushrooms and moulds

  6. Parasitic Fungi • Absorb their food from live hosts • They get their food mostly from plants although some fungal parasites live on animals e.g. athlete’s foot http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4a/Athletes.jpg/220px-Athletes.jpg

  7. Parasitic Fungi • Obligate parasites • live on live hosts but do not normally kill them • Facultative parasites • kill the host and feed on the remains http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4a/Athletes.jpg/220px-Athletes.jpg

  8. Symbiosis • Some fungi e.g. form symbiotic relationships with other organisms • A lichen is an organism which is a combination of a fungus and an alga

  9. Edible and poisonous fungi • Some fungi are edible, but many are poisonous if eaten • It is often difficult to distinguish between the edible and poisonous varieties growing in the wild

  10. Learning Check • What is a saprophytic fungi? • Give an example of a saprophytic fungi • What is a parasitic fungi? • What is an obligate parasite? • What is facultative parasite? • Give an example of a parasitic fungi

  11. Rhizopus

  12. Rhizopus growing on agar

  13. Structure of Rhizopus

  14. Consists of threadlike structures called Hyphae Hypha

  15. They are tubular with no cross walls and are multinucleate. Each nucleus is haploid. Nucleus

  16. Large numbers of hyphae are called a mycelium • The hyphae digest the substrate on which they grows • Rhizoids provide extra surface area for absorption of the digested material • Stolons are arial hyphae which allow Rhizopus to spread sideways

  17. Structure of Rhizopus

  18. Sporangium Spores Columella Apophysis Sporangiophore

  19. Learning Check • Can you draw and label the structure of Rhizopus? • What is a hypha? • What is a mycelium? • What is the function of a rhizoid? • What is a stolon?

  20. Life cycle of Rhizopus

  21. Asexual reproduction • Sporangiophores grow up from the substrate after a number of days • Cells within the sporangium divide by mitosis to produce spores (haploid)

  22. Asexual reproduction • Cells within the sporangium divide by mitosis to produce spores (haploid)

  23. Asexual reproduction • The sporangium dries out in the right conditions and opens releasing many spores. • Each spore will grow into a new hypha and mycelium if it lands on a suitable substrate

  24. Sexual reproduction + Strain - Strain • Sexual reproduction in Rhizopus can only occur between a plus and a minus strain.

  25. Sexual reproduction + Strain - Strain • When hyphae from opposite strains grow close together swellings grow on both strains and touch each other.

  26. Sexual reproduction + Strain - Strain • Nuclei from both hyphae move into these swellings which are now called progametangia.

  27. Sexual reproduction + Strain - Strain • Cross-walls form to produce gametangia.

  28. Sexual reproduction + Strain - Strain • The walls of the gametangia dissolve and a number of fertilisations take place producing diploid zygote nuclei.

  29. Sexual reproduction + Strain - Strain • A zygospore forms around these nuclei. • When conditions are suitable the zygospore germinates by meiosis.

  30. Sexual reproduction + Strain - Strain • A zygospore forms around these nuclei. • When conditions are suitable the zygospore germinates by meiosis.

  31. Sexual reproduction • A hypha grows out of the zygospore and produces a sporangium at the tip. • The sporangium opens releasing many haploid spores which grow into new individuals.

  32. Review of sexual reproduction • Sexual reproduction in Rhizopus can only occur between a plus and a minus strain • When hyphae from opposite strains grow close together swellings grow on both strains and touch each other • Nuclei from both hyphae move into these swellings which are now called progametangia • Cross-walls form to produce gametangia

  33. Review of sexual reproduction • The walls of the gametangia dissolve and a number of fertilisations take place producing diploid zygote nuclei • A zygospore forms around these nuclei • When conditions are suitable the zygospore germinates by meiosis • A hypha grows out of the zygospore and produces a sporangium at the tip • The sporangium opens releasing many haploid spores which grow into new individuals

  34. Learning Check • How does Rhizopus reproduce? • What is a prometangia? • How is a gametangia formed? • How is a zygospore formed? • What is produced at the tip of a hypha?

  35. Yeast

  36. Structure of yeast

  37. Reproduction in Yeast

  38. Asexual reproduction in yeast occurs by budding. The nucleus of the parent cell divides by mitosis. One of the daughter nuclei enters a small developing bud on the outside of the yeast cell. Asexual reproduction in yeast

  39. This bud can separate from the parent to become a new individual Asexual reproduction in yeast

  40. This bud can separate from the parent to become a new individual In some cases the bud does not separate, but can itself bud. In this way long colonies of yeast cells can develop Asexual reproduction in yeast

  41. Budding

  42. Budding

  43. Economic importance of fungi Beneficial fungi • Yeasts can be used to make bread and alcohols such as wine and beer • Fungi can be used as a source of food e.g. mushroom

  44. Economic importance of fungi Harmful fungi • Fungi can attack crops e.g. corn and wheat and cause major financial losses as a result • Fungi such as athletes foot and ringworm can infect animals • Fungi can spoil food e.g. rhizopus grows on bread

  45. Learning Check • Can you draw the structure of yeast? • Describe how yeast reproduces • Give an example of how yeast is important economically

  46. Syllabus: Depth of treatment • Saprophytic and parasitic forms • Rhizopus (Structure and life cycle) • Nutrition • Yeast: structure and reproduction (budding).

  47. Contemporary issues and Technology • Mention of edible and poisonous fungi. • Economic importance of fungi: examples of any two beneficial and any two harmful fungi. Practical Activities • Investigate the growth of leaf yeasts using agar plates and controls