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History & the Novel

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  1. History & the Novel Russia & the Rise of Stalin: Key Timeline, 1918 - 1945

  2. 1918-20 • Civil War in Russia • Introduction of Terror and War Communism • Bolshevik victory 1920 • Kronstadt Uprising – Red Navy protest against Party Dictatorship • Lenin’s introduction of NEP – effectively return of moderate liberalism and capitalism 1924 – 29 • Lenin’s death; Struggle for power begins 1929 • Stalin emerges as sole leader • Collectivization Programme begins - accompanied by ‘dekulakization’ • 5 year Plans for industry begins: aims to modernise Russia rapidly - but enormous human costs

  3. 1934-38 • Assassination of Kirov, Stalin’s friend and Leningrad Party Organiser - blamed on ‘enemies within’ • Mass terror and ‘show trials’ launched. • All surviving original Bolsheviks executed • Military elites purged • General population purged • New ‘Liberal’ Constitution introduced • Cult of Stalin grows 1938-9 • Terror dies down (temporarily) as Secret Police blamed (& leaders purged) • Stalin signs Nazi-Soviet Pact, keeps Russia out of war for first year – to great surprise of Britain 1940-45 • Nazis invade Russia • Russia participates in ‘Great Patriotic War’ • Terror continues on lesser scale

  4. 1945 • Cold war begins • Eastern bloc created as Russia extends political and economic control in Eastern Europe • 1953 • Stalin dies – while plotting further Terror • 1953-56 • Leadership Struggle – Reformist Khrushchev emerges as victor