Guidelines of using outside sources for evidence • Always assume your reader has not read the articles you use for support. Even if you are responding to an article from a class, writing a letter to the editor in a newspaper, or writing a journal article, recognize that your audience needs to know where the source came from, what it is about, and how you are reading it. • Corroborate evidence that is important to your argument with other sources • Integrate the source with your own argument as evidence for your claims • Give attribution
Assume your reader hasn’t read the sources you are using • When writing in MLA, you should follow these guidelines: • The first time you use a source important to your argument, provide a relevant background about the source. This background might one or more of the following: • Credentials – the journal or original source something appears in. • Objective – the “main point” of the article. • Context – the particular detail you are taking away from the article. • Thus: According to Jim Frederick in an article originally appearing in The Baffler, young people are willing to work for little to no wage in the “glamour industries” (3) as interns because of the “imagined benefit” (3) of someday working in that industry.
Corroborate/Synthesize your evidence • Corroboration or Synthesis provides reliability to your argument and evidence. It also opens up a place for you to enter a much larger conversation. • Add like evidence with like evidence • Continue a conversation • Use external evidence in rational appeals • Thus, “According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, a college education’s effect on lifetime earnings is significantly positive. In addition, other studies have also shown that “even after college loans are paid, and entry-level jobs are accounted for, a college education still is a good return on investment (Smith 43). Although this may be the case, other studies have shown that a college education is not necessarily correlated with success (Jones and Smith 186). The question raised, then, is how have we come to measure success?”
Problem:Integrating Sources • Sources should be a part of your argument, not just an object you cut and paste in. Refer to QA Compact. • The following is not a smooth integration: • Gamers use repeatable examples and occasionally anecdotes as primary means of argument. These tend to be effective because they build ethos within the activity system of the rhetorical situation. “There was this one time where I zerged late game while this dood totally had set his base for late game air defense. Slaughtered” (Life4Aiur3).
Solution:Integrating Sources • Refer to QA Compact while you are writing • Remember Credentials, Objective, and Context the FIRST time you list a source • Always use a signal phrase and provide an author or source as agent. • Use keywords from the quote to make it flow better in your text. • Gamers use repeatable examples and occasionally anecdotes as primary means of argument. These tend to be effective because they build ethos within the activity system of the rhetorical situation. On the official Battle.net Starcraft forums, Life4Aiur made the claim that the Zerg rush was effective even in end game, sharing the story, “there was this one time where I zerged late game while this dood totally had set his base for late game air defense. Slaughtered.”
Problem:Citation • The point of in-text parenthetical citation is so that your reader can find your sources on your Works Cited page, and can find the exact location where you are citing from.
Solution:Citation • QA Compact • If you have an author in your sentence, then just put the pg# in parentheses after the quote and before the period • Simpson states, “I will survive” (4). • If the author is not stated, or it might be carried over from another sentence, then last name and pg # in parentheses after the quote and before the period • He also states, “But first I need a beer” (Simpson 4). • If it is a paraphrase, you still cite the page # and author, but make sure it is placed before “your” idea in a sentence. • Simpson believes that alcohol is required to survive (4). • Simpson’s belief that beer is a precursor to survival (4) is an important lesson for college students. • If you are citing a source within another source, you need to list the source that you have on your Works Cited page with the original source as “ctd. in” • Simpson refuses to believe that excessive alcohol consumption “causes dementia in the elderly” (Davenport ctd. in Simpson 7).
Solution (cont):Citation • Quotes of more than four typed lines are placed in block style. Block quotes should always be proceeded by a complete introduction of the quote. Block quotes are double spaced, just like the surrounding text (it’s not doubled spaced on this slide to save space). Simpson’s guide to survival includes many helpful tips. Among the most startling is his description of consuming alcohol at work: I drink when I get up. I drink on my way to work. I drink in the parking lot. I drink when on break. I drink before I talk to my boss. I drink after I talk to my boss. I drink on my way home. (5-6)
Solution:Citation • Web pages often have authors, you just have to hunt for them. If you can’t find an author, refer to the webpage and/or sponsor as the author. You do not need a page number of a webpage. You would use an in-text parenthetical only if it is not clear from your signal where the material is coming from, or the agent of the quote is not the author of the article • Never use a URL as an in-text citation • According to Coca-Cola’s website, they would “like to teach the world to sing.” • Steve Balmer believes Windows 7 will “change your state of mind” (“Windows 7Arrives”) • Forum posts have authors, and they are whom you should cite in this case (remember, you cannot assume gender). Also, the in-text is the thread or post title; save the forum post for the Works Cited: • According to KillerK33, he or she would “like to teach the world to sing” (“Strategy for U.S.”). • Sandypants believes that Starcraft II will “change your state of mind” (“Starcraft II”).
Articles on the web • On your Works Cited, you should cite as follows: Miller, Greg. “Bastion Review." IGN: PC. 22 Aug 2011. Web. 16 Jan. 2012 <http://pc.ign.com/articles/118/1189676p1.html> Author’s name Article or post title Website URL (optional) Date of publication Date of visit
Academic Journal Article Chang, Yaping, Jun Yan, Jinlong Zhang, and Jin Luo. “Online In- Game Advertising Effect: Examining the Influence of a Match Between Games and Advertising.” Journal of Interactive Advertising 11.1 (Fall 2010). Web. 25 January 2013. Author’s name(s) Article Title Journal Volume and issue Date of publication Date of visit
Games [Formula] Game Title. Developer. Publisher. Date of publication. Website. Media. Date of visit <URL> Examples McCafe Madness. Forge FX. McDonald’s. 2011. McCafe/McDonald’s. 30 January 2013 <http://mccafetime.com/game/> My Little Pony Friendship is Magic Adventure Ponies. 2011. HubWorld. 30 January 2013 <http://www.hubworld.com/my-little-pony/shows/friendship-is- magic/games/mlpfim-adventure-ponies> Dorito’s Crash Course. Wanako Games. Microsoft. 8 December 2010. Xbox Live. Belly & Brain. Just-Eat Holdings Limited. 30 November 2011. iOS.