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Kidney - External Macro Anatomy. Kidney Anatomy. Cortex. Column. Medulla. Base. Papillae. Kidney - Internal Macro Anatomy. Renal Corpuscle. Renal Tubule. Nephron. Renal Corpuscle. Renal corpuscle Site of fluid filtration 2 components glomerulus group of capillary loops

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Kidney - External Macro Anatomy


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  1. Kidney - External Macro Anatomy

  2. Kidney Anatomy Cortex

  3. Column Medulla Base Papillae Kidney - Internal Macro Anatomy

  4. Renal Corpuscle Renal Tubule Nephron

  5. Renal Corpuscle • Renal corpuscle • Site of fluid filtration • 2 components • glomerulus • group of capillary loops • fed by afferent arteriole • removed by efferent arteriole • glomerular (Bowman's) capsule • double walled epithelial cup • outer wall (parietal layer) separated from inner wall (visceral layer) by capsular (Bowman's) space

  6. Nephron • Renal tubule - where filtered fluid passes from capsule • proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) • loop of Henle (nephron loop) • distal convoluted tubule (DCT) • short connecting tubules • collecting ducts • merge to papillary duct • then to minor calyx • 30 pap ducts/papillae

  7. Nephron • Cortical vs. juxtamedullary nephrons • Name depends on length of LofH • 15-20% have long loops and  reabsorptive capabilities

  8. Renal Corpuscle Histology • Each nephron portion has distinctive features • Histology of Glomerular filter • Three layers of tissue • From inside to out prevents movement of progressively smaller particles

  9. Renal Corpuscle Histology • Endothelium of glomerulus • Single layer of endothelium w/ fenestrations • Restricts RBC movement

  10. Renal Corpuscle Histology • Basement membrane of glomerulus • Between endothelium and visceral layer of glom capsule • Prevents large protein movement

  11. Renal Corpuscle Histology • Filtration slits in podocytes • Podocytes • specialized epithelium of visceral layer • footlike extensions w/ slits between extensions • Restrict medium-sized proteins

  12. Renal Corpuscle Histology

  13. Tubule Histology • In general, tubule is a single layer of epithelial cells on basement membrane • PCT • cuboidal w/ brush border of microvilli on apical border •  surface area for reabsorption

  14. Tubule Histology • Descending loop of Henle, beginning of ascending loop • simple squamous epithelium • only permeable to water • Remainder of ascending loop • cuboidal to low columnar epithelium • only permeable to ions

  15. Tubule Histology • DCT, collecting ducts - cuboidal w/ some modifications in late DCT collecting ducts • principal cells • intercalated cells

  16. Tubule Histology • Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) • Ascending LofH contacts afferent arteriole • Macula Densa • special cells in this area monitor Na+Cl- content in blood • able to work w/ JG cells • Juxtaglomerular (JG) cells • modified smooth muscle • secrete vasoconstrictors • Both work together to regulate BP

  17. Renal Blood Supply • Important in italics • Renal artery • 20-25% of resting CO • 1200 ml/min • Segmental arteries • Interlobar arteries - through columns • Arcuate arteries • Interlobular arteries

  18. Renal Blood Supply • Important in Italics • Afferent arterioles - each renal corpuscle receives 1 • Glomerular caps • Efferent arterioles - drain blood from glomerulus • Peritubular caps - around PCT and DCT • Vasa recta - long loop from efferent arteriole around LofH

  19. Renal Blood Supply • Important in italics • Interlobular veins • Arcuate veins • Interlobar veins • Segmental veins • Renal veins - exits hilus

  20. Renal Nerve Supply • Nerves from renal plexus of SNS • Vasomotor nerves that accompany renal arteries and branches • What is the role of SNS stimulation on renal blood flow? • Fight or flight • Decrease flow

  21. The Final Common Pathway • Ureter • extension of kidney pelvis • enter bladder medially from posterior • Histology - 3 layers • mucosa • mucous membrane w/ transitional epithelium • secrete mucous • muscularis - smooth • inner longitudinal • outer circular • serosa

  22. The Final Common Pathway • Urinary bladder • hollow muscular organ • generally smaller in females due to uterus • retroperitoneally in pelvic cavity posteriorly to pelvic symphysis • freely movable • Structure - trigone

  23. The Final Common Pathway • Histology • mucosa - mucous membrane of transitional epithelium and underlying lamina propria • muscularis • detrusor muscle 3 layers of inner longitudinal, mid circular, outer longitudinal • around opening to urethra • circular fibers form internal urethral sphincter • lower is external urethral sphincter - skeletal muscle for control • serosa - peritoneum

  24. The Final Common Pathway

  25. The Final Common Pathway • Urethra • small tube from floor of bladder to exterior of body • females fairly straight path out through vagina • males passes through the prostate gland • histology • female three coats • inner mucous, intermediate thin layer of spongy tissue w/ plexus of veins • outer muscular coat continuous w/ bladder • male two layers • inner mucous membrane • outer submucous tissue connects w/ structures that it passes