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External anatomy of the ear. Helix. Triangular Fossa. Concha. Pinna. Tragus. Antihelix. Lobule. Antitragus. Three Parts of the Ear. Overview of the anatomy of the external ear, middle ear and internal ear. Gross Anatomy of the Middle Ear. Gross Anatomy of the Inner Ear.

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external anatomy of the ear
External anatomy of the ear

Helix

Triangular Fossa

Concha

Pinna

Tragus

Antihelix

Lobule

Antitragus

events involved in the creation of an auditory action impulse
Events involved in the creation of an Auditory action impulse
  • Pinna directs sound waves
  • into the external auditory
  • meatus.
  • Sound waves cause the
  • tympanic membrane to
  • vibrate.
  • a. Slowly for low-
  • frequency sounds
  • b. Rapidly for high-
  • frequency sounds
  • c. Distance the membrane
  • travels during these
  • vibrations relates to
  • loudness or decibels.
events involved in the creation of an auditory action impulse1
Events involved in the creation of an Auditory action impulse
  • Vibrations are communicated
  • from the tympanic membrane
  • to the auditory ossicles.
  • Malleus Incus Stapes
  • Stapes vibrates back and forth
  • in the oval window, thus
  • vibrating the oval window
  • membrane.
  • Vibration of oval window
  • membrane causes fluid pressure
  • waves in the perilymph of the
  • scala vestibuli.
events involved in the creation of an auditory action impulse2
Events involved in the creation of an Auditory action impulse
  • Perilymphpressure waves
  • are transmitted to the scala
  • tympani and eventually to the round window causing the secondary tympanic membrane to bulge outward.
  • Vibrations of the vestibular
  • membrane cause vibrations
  • of the endolymph within the cochlear duct.
  • Endolymph pressure waves
  • cause the basilar membrane
  • to vibrate.
events involved in the creation of an auditory action impulse3
Events involved in the creation of an Auditory action impulse

8a. Vibrations of the basilar membrane cause the the hair cells of the Organ of Corti to vibrate.

8b. Hair cells vibrate upward, bending the stereocilia against the tectorial membrane.

8c. Bending the stereocilia produces a receptor potential that ultimately leads to a action potential on Cochlear nerve.

auditory pathway
Auditory Pathway
  • First-order neurons in the Cochlear branch of the Vestibulocochlear nerve
  • Cochlear nuclei in the medulla
  • Superior Olivary nuclei in the medulla
  • Inferior colliculus
  • Medial geniculate nuclei of the thalamus
  • Primary auditory area of the superior temporal gyrus