External anatomy iii lecture 12
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External Anatomy III Lecture 12. Insects have evolved for more than 350 million years resulting in: Diverse biology & ecology Diverse morphology. Modification of abdomen. Moth. Ichneumon wasp. Katydid. Modification of legs. digging. grasping. grooming. pollen collecting. raptorial.

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External anatomy iii lecture 12


External anatomy iii lecture 12

Modification of abdomen resulting in:

Moth

Ichneumon wasp

Katydid


External anatomy iii lecture 12

Modification of legs resulting in:

digging

grasping

grooming

pollen collecting

raptorial


External anatomy iii lecture 12

Modification of wings resulting in:

elytron

tegmen

hemelytron

haltere


External anatomy iii lecture 12

Modification of mouthparts resulting in:

Butterfly

Mosquito

Honey bee


External anatomy iii lecture 12

Modification of antennae resulting in:

Moniliform

Clavate

Filiform

Serrate

Pectinate

Flabellate

Plumose

Aristate

Geniculate


External anatomy iii lecture 12

Insect Locomotion resulting in:

  • Walking

  • Jumping

  • Flying


External anatomy iii lecture 12

  • Walking: resulting in:

  • Protraction – complete movement forwards of the whole limb relative to its articulation with the body

  • Retraction – the backward movement of the leg relative to its articulation between the time the foot is placed on the ground and the time it is raised

  • Tripod movement – one tripod (fore and hind legs on one side and mid leg of the opposite side) protracts while the other tripod retracts

  • Romaleaexample


External anatomy iii lecture 12

  • Jumping: resulting in:

  • Rapid release of energy stored in the muscle and in the cuticle

  • Hind leg– Orthoptera, Siphonaptera, Homoptera and some beetles

  • Modified abdominal appendages (furca) – Collembola

  • Thoracic arch – click beetles


External anatomy iii lecture 12

http://whyfiles.org/2013/got-gears-lets-leap-says-the-leafhopper/http://whyfiles.org/2013/got-gears-lets-leap-says-the-leafhopper/


External anatomy iii lecture 12

Flying:http://whyfiles.org/2013/got-gears-lets-leap-says-the-leafhopper/

Direct flight system

- flight muscle directly connected to wings

- upward stroke achieved by contraction of muscles attached to the wing base inside the pivotal point

- downward stroke achieved by contraction of muscles attached to the wing base outside the pivotal point contraction

- Odonata


External anatomy iii lecture 12

Flying:http://whyfiles.org/2013/got-gears-lets-leap-says-the-leafhopper/

Indirect flight system

- no muscle-to-wing connection

- wings stroke due to deformation of thorax

- upward stroke achieved by contraction of dorso-ventral muscle which depresses tergum

- downward stroke achieved by contraction of dorsal longitudinal muscle which deforms the thorax and lifts tergum

- Most insects


External anatomy iii lecture 12

Flying:http://whyfiles.org/2013/got-gears-lets-leap-says-the-leafhopper/

Indirect flight system

- no muscle-to-wing connection

- wings stroke due to deformation of thorax

- upward stroke achieved by contraction of dorso-ventral muscle which depresses tergum

- downward stroke achieved by contraction of dorsal longitudinal muscle which deforms the thorax and lifts tergum

- Most insects


External anatomy iii lecture 12

  • Wing beat frequency:http://whyfiles.org/2013/got-gears-lets-leap-says-the-leafhopper/

  • Synchronous muscle – contacts once per nerve impulse

  • Asynchronous muscle – contracts many times per nerve impulse


External anatomy iii lecture 12

Keeping wings together for flight (wing coupling)http://whyfiles.org/2013/got-gears-lets-leap-says-the-leafhopper/

Mecoptera

Lepidoptera

Lepidoptera

Lepidoptera

Hymenoptera

hamuli


External anatomy iii lecture 12

  • Halterehttp://whyfiles.org/2013/got-gears-lets-leap-says-the-leafhopper/:

  • Modified hind wings of Diptera

  • Sense organ concerned with the maintenance of stability in flight