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  1. Essential Question: • How did different values lead to different American subcultures in the Chesapeake, Southern, New England, & Middle colonies? • Warm-Up Question: • Based upon the documents provided, what are some key differences between the Virginia & New England colonies?

  2. Four Colonial Subcultures • The different values of the migrants dictated the “personality” of the newly created colonies; led to distinct (not unified) colonies • The Chesapeake • New England • Middle Colonies • The Lower South

  3. European Settlements in North America by 1660

  4. Chesapeake Colonies:Virginia & Maryland

  5. Chesapeake Colonies

  6. The Chesapeake: Dreams of Wealth • After Walter Raleigh's failed Roanoke settlement, there was little interest in colonizing America; but Richard Hakluyt (&others)keptpromotingcolonies: • Possibilities for wealth • Rivaling Spain, Holland, France • Nationalism, anti-Catholicism, & anti-Spanish zeal

  7. Entrepreneurs in Virginia • The major obstacle to colonizing in America was funding; Queen Elizabeth would not spend tax revenue: • Joint-stock companies provided financing for colonies • In 1606, King James gave the London Company the 1st charter to establish colonies in America

  8. The London Company, 1606 The London Co was later renamed the Virginia Company; English stockholders in Virginia Company expected instant profits

  9. “The Virginia Colony” Reading & Discussion • Based upon the reading • What were the expectations of theearlyJamestowncolonists? • What were conditions like during the early years of the Jamestown colony?

  10. Entrepreneurs in Virginia • Jamestown was settled in 1607 along the Chesapeake Bay: • the location was unhealthy but easy to defend from Spanish ships (but not from inland Indians) • Settlers had no experience in founding a settlement • Colonists expected to become immediately wealthy & failed to plant crops or prepare for long-term habitation in America Chesapeake colonists did not work for the common good & many starved to death

  11. Jamestown Fort, 1609

  12. Jamestown Colony

  13. Spinning Out of Control Captain John Smith • In 1608, John Smith imposed order in Jamestown & traded for food with natives • But, Jamestown faced difficulties: • Poor leadership & harsh winters led to starving time (1609-1610) • In 1622 & 1644, Jamestown was attacked by Powhattan Indians The most powerful Native Americans east of Mississippi River

  14. Powhatan Confederacy The 1622 Powhatan uprising killed 347

  15. Saved by a “Stinking Weed” • John Rolfe introduced a tobacco hybrid that gave Jamestown a cash crop economy

  16. Early Colonial Tobacco • 1618 — Virginia produced 20,000 pounds of tobacco • 1622 — Despite losing nearly 1/3 of its colonists in an Indian attack, 60,000 pounds produced • 1627 — Virginia produced 500,000 pounds of tobacco • 1629 — Virginia produced 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco

  17. Saved by a “Stinking Weed” • In 1618, headrights were used to encourage cultivation of tobacco & the settlement of Jamestown: • A 50-acre lot was granted to each colonist who paid for his own transportation, or for each servant brought into the colony • Led to huge tobacco plantations & thousands of new settlers who hoped to make their fortunes

  18. English Migration, 1610-1660 Virginia’s growth was due largely to headrights

  19. Why was 1619 a pivotal year for the Chesapeake settlement?

  20. Virginia House of Burgesses • In 1619, Virginia colonists created a legislative assembly to create local taxes & oversee finances • The Virginia House of Burgesses became the 1st legislative assembly in America

  21. How Many Slaves? • In 1619, the 1st African slaves arrived in Jamestown • In the 17th century, 1,000 slaves arrived in the New World per year • Through the 18th century, 5.5 million arrived in America • By 1860, 11 million slaves were brought to the New World • Before 1831, more African slaves came to America than Europeans

  22. Population of the Chesapeake Colonies: 1607-1750

  23. Time of Reckoning • Despite the profits from tobacco, Virginia was a deadly place to live • Many died from disease • Numerous Powhattan attacks • Indentured servants were treated badly & cheated out of land when servitude ended • Few females (6:1 ratio) made families or reproduction difficult

  24. Corruption and Reform • In 1624, James I dissolved the Virginia Company & made Virginia a royal colony • But colonists continued to meet in the House of Burgesses • VA was divided into 8 counties each with a county court • Very little changed; Jamestown colonists still focused with tobacco & continued to lack unity

  25. Jamestown Colonization Pattern, 1620-1660

  26. The Maryland Colony

  27. Maryland: A Refuge for Catholics • Initiated by Sir George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) as a refuge for English Catholics • In 1632, Charles I granted a charter for Maryland • To recruit laborers, Lord Baltimore required toleration among Catholics & Protestants

  28. Maryland: A Refuge for Catholics • Wealthy Catholics proved unwilling to relocate to America so Maryland became populated largely by poor Protestant farmers & indentured servants: • Maryland had few large tobacco plantations • Farmers (mostly poor tobacco planters) lived in scattered riverfront settlements

  29. New England Colonies

  30. New England Colonies, 1650

  31. Reforming England in America • Queen Elizabeth’s reconciliation of Anglican & Catholic conflicts appeased many, but created 2 factious groups of extremists: • Catholics (many settled in Maryland) • Puritans who wanted Anglican Church stripped of Catholic rituals (made up of conservative “Puritans” & radical “Pilgrims”)

  32. The Pilgrims in Plymouth • Pilgrims were separatists who refused to worship in the Anglican Church, fled to Holland to avoid compromising religious beliefs • Migrated to America in order to maintain distinct identity & settled in New England • Formed the Mayflower Compact to create a “civil body politick” among settlers (became the 1st American form of self-gov’t)

  33. The “Mayflower Compact” Reading & Discussion • What are the Pilgrims agreeing to do by signing the Mayflower Compact? • Is this a religious or a political document? Explain

  34. Reforming England in America The origins of Thanksgiving • PilgrimsfoundedPlymouthin1620 • Faced disease & hunger; received help from local natives like Squanto & Massasoit • Plymouth was a society of small farming villages bound together by mutual consent but faced serious recruitment issues • In 1691,Plymouth was absorbed into the larger, more successful Massachusetts Bay colony

  35. “The Great Migration” • Puritans were more conservative than Pilgrims & wished to remain within the Church of England: • Believedinpredestination,fought social sins, & despised Catholic rituals in the Anglican Church • In 1629, many Puritans felt King Charles I was ruining England • From 1630-1640, John Winthrop led 16,000 Puritans to the Massachusetts Bay colony

  36. The Great Puritan Migration

  37. “A City on a Hill” • Winthrop emphasized a common spiritual goal: to create a “city on a hill” as beacon of righteousness • New England experienced unique demographic & social trends: • Settlers usually came as families • NE was a generally healthy place to live • Settlers sacrificed self-interest for the good of the community

  38. “A City on a Hill” • As Mass Bay colony grew beyond Boston, towns began to develop their own unique personalities: • Each town was independently governed by local church members (Congregationalism) • Allowed voting by all adult male church members (women & blacks joined but could not vote) • Officials were responsible to God, not their constituents

  39. Congregationalism: Nucleated vs. Dispersed Villages

  40. “A City on a Hill” • NE town gov’ts were autonomous & most people participated due to common religious values • Massachusetts Bay was more peaceful than other colonies: • Passed a legal code called the Lawes and Liberties in 1648 to protect rights & order • Created civil courts to maintain order & mediate differences

  41. Limits of Dissent: Roger Williams • Puritans never supported religious toleration, esp Roger Williams: • Williams was a separatist who questioned the validity of the colony’s charter because the landwasnotboughtfromnatives • Promoted “liberty of conscience” where God (not leaders) would punish people for their “wrong” religious ideas • Expelled to Rhode Island in 1636

  42. Limits of Dissent: Anne Hutchinson • Anne Hutchinson believed she was directly inspired by God: • Believed that “converted” people are not subject to man’s laws, only subject to God’s laws (Antinomianism) • Hutchinson challenged Mass Bay’s religious leaders • ShewasbanishedtoRhodeIsland

  43. Mobility and Division • After absorbing Plymouth, the Massachusetts colony grew & spawned 4 new colonies: • New Hampshire • Rhode Island • Connecticut • New Haven

  44. Mobility and Division • New Hampshire formed in 1677; grew very slowly & was dependent upon Mass Bay • Connecticut formed in 1662 due to fertile lands; resembled Mass Bay • Fundamental Orders was model of civil gov’t based on religious principles (the 1st written constitution in American history)

  45. Mobility and Division • New Haven set up in 1636 because Puritan leaders wanted a colony with closer relationship between church & state • Rhode Island drew highly independent colonists who practiced religious toleration (founded by religious dissenter Roger Williams)

  46. New England Colonies, 1650

  47. Complete the following chart then identify the most significant similarities & differences between the Chesapeake & New England colonies