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Bangladeshi tourism - network strategy for sustainable tourism A Views On Tourism Project presentation Jagannath University 9th June 2010
Personal profile Majbritt Thomsen • MA Tourism • Marketing, policy, organisation • Danish expat since late 2007 • BD travel experience • Royal Danish Embassy, DANIDA report on BD tourism potential • Business studies BD tourism • Interaction tourism sector • Huge number of visionary people, resources, organizations and initiatives in Bangladesh • Views On Tourism Project Photo: Up-comming Panigram Eco-resort, Jessore
The Views On Tourism Project Voluntary initative since 2008 • Vision • Encourage an active sustainable tourism movement in Bangladesh • All players can make an impact! • Online blog • Tourism knowledge and inspiration • National, regional and international resources • This presentation is available • Online group • Tourism network and discussion forum for people interested in a sustainable tourism development in Bangaldesh • LinkedIn an international professional network www.viewsontourism.info
Agenda World best practice and theory • Understanding tourism challenges • Sustainable tourism • Practices and lessons • Bangladesh • Status and sustainable tourism potential • How to develop national tourism through knowledge and network • Summing up
World tourism demand since 1950 Push-factor – why leave home? Regional outbound anno 2008 Western Europe Dominates Tourism Flow Outbound Strong Outbound Flow from Asia-Pacific Economic Stability in Eastern Europe Favors Outbound Flows Wealthy North Americans: Passionate Travelers • Economic factors • More wealth • Social factors • More time • Demographic changes • Family size, population increase, urbanisation, increased life expectancy • Technological factors • Transportation • Political factors • Freedom of mobility Source: Euromonitor International's ‘Tourism Flows Outbound – World’ (2008)
World tourism destinations Pull-factor – where to go? International arivals 2008 France 79.3 milion USA 58.0 Spain 57.3 China 53.0 Italy 42.7 United Kingdom 30.1 Ukraine 25.4 Turkey 25.0 Germany 24.9 Mexico 22.6 • Accessibility to markets • Affordability • Availability of attractions • Availability of services • Cultural links • Geographical proximity to markets • Peace and stability • Positive market image • Pro-tourism policies Source: UNWTO
Understanding travel motivation • Physical motivators • Refreshment of body and mind; health, sport and pleasure. • Cultural motivators • Desire to see and know more about other cultures • Interpersonal motivators • Meet new people, visit friends or relatives • Status and prestige motivators • Personal development or education Theory: McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie (1995)
Increased world demand for nature Historical tourism view • 1980s increased tourism demand for more nature-based travel adventures • 1994: 40-60 % international tourists (528.4 million) were nature tourists • Now: Nature-based tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the world's largest industry
Eco-tourism demand More than a niche market! • Environmentally minded travelers • ’Hard core’ eco-tourism • Nature - the reson to go! • Nature professionals or people with serious interests • ’Soft’ eco- tourism • Nature important, but not main holiday motivation or activity
The new traveler stereotype Searches for authentic and meaningful experiences Searches for physical and mentally challenging experiences Wishes to have a positive impact on the destination Source: Weaver & Lawton (2002) • Green consumer • Knowledgeable about environmental issues • Conscious of social justice concerns • Motivated by a desire for self-fulfilment and learning • More independent-minded and quality conscious • Carefully assesses tourism products in advance • Preferes flexible and spontaneous itineraries • Sensitive to local cultures
Understanding tourism sector Most important supporters of tourism demand and supply Tour operators/planers Almost exclusively product packaging and distribution High influence on tourism demand and hence sector succes and failure Multiple SME’s and tourism related stakeholders Different agendas, resources and focus on tourism • Attractions • Often motivation for visit • Accommodation • Most visible sub-sector • Transportation • Most important element in destination development • Public sector and policy • Crucial management organisations
Tourism development is complex! • Tourism often praised as an effective development tool, especially in rural areas and the developing world • Tourism always cause environmental and socio-cultural as well as economic impacts on destinations Tribal people in Bandarban
Positive tourism impact Society / Culture Preserving local culture and heritage Social wellbeing and stability Promotion of cross-cultural understanding • Economy • Direct / indirect revenue for country, community and private sector • Nature • Protect environment and preserve nature Source: ‘Why Tourism Matters’ campaign Washington State, USA
Negative tourism impact Economy Increased local living cost External money flow Nature High pressure on environment ressources Disturb fauna and flora Society / Culture Lost of cultural values and traditions Prostitution and crime
Destination impact from tourism • Less developed destinations are vulnerable, especially to rapid tourism development! • Tourism in developing world • Industry focus often inbound tourism (expect high income) • Often huge cultural, which may cause large negative social implications • New discussion: Long-term social and economic benefit best from national tourism?
Sustainable tourism is the solution! • Definition: “Tourism that meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future” Source: UNWTO • A tourism value • Development: Balancing the needs of tourists and destination • New tourism management: cooperation government, tourism sector and all stakeholders
Sustainable tourism values and principles Community based economics Environment economy integration Conservation With Equity Source: Hall (1998)
Best case: Bhutan national strategy Management: Department of Tourism Coordination Tourism advisor since 2002: SNV (Dutch NGO) Department of Tourism, Regional Trade and Industry Office, Association of Tour Operators, Nature Conservation Division • National tourism status: • Successful poverty alleviation through tourism development • Core development values: • Brutto National Happiness • Pro-poor tourism development • Long-term sustainability • Restricted level of tourist activity
Eco-tourism - a sub-category • Definition • “Ecotourism is a responsible travel to natural areas that covers the environment and sustains the well being of local people” (Epler Wood, 1996) • Goal • Ecotourism can become an important tool to preserve and develop remote areas
7 characteristics of eco-tourism • Involves travel to natural destinations • Minimizes impact • Respects local culture • Builds environmental awareness • Supports human rights and democratic movements • Provides financial benefits and empowerment for local people • Provides direct financial benefits for conservation Source: The International Ecotourism Society (TIES)
Best case: Ecotourism in China Meilixueshan Conservation Area Development partners Deqin County Government The Nature Conservancy, world conservation organization • Principle tourist attractions • Majestic views of the Meilixueshan mountain • Trekking through forest and traditional Tibetan villages • Glaciers and waterfalls along a Tibetan pilgrimage route • Tibetan cultural and religious heritage • Tibetan-run guesthouses or homestays • Local Tibetan guides
South Asian tourism cooperation Regional tourism status in 2007 • Inbound tourism India, Nepal and Bangladesh • Total arrival: 5,7 million • Total income 12,3 billion UD$ • Already a multicountry activity • 1/3 Indian tourists, visit primerly Nepal • 46 % Bhutan tourists also visit Nepal and/or Indian • The South Asia Travel & Tourism economy 2010 is: • Number 10 in absolute size worldwide • Number 1 in long-term (10-year) growth Source: ADB (2009) Source WTTC (2010)
Best case: Regional cooperation Asian Development Bank project Target markets Thailand, Korea, China, UK, France, Germany, Italy, USA, Canada and Australia • Subregional tourism cooperation 2009-2014 • India, Nepal & Bangladesh • Governments co-investment • Sustainable heritage tourism development (UNESCO) • Bangladesh: Heritage Highway • Site access and condition • Protect, manage and promote heritage
Bangladesh - tourism demand • Forecast WTTC ‘Travel & Tourism economic Impact – Bangladesh 2010’ • 3,9 to 4,1 % GDP from 2010 to 2020 • 2010: 265,9 billion Taka • 2020: 788,4 billion Taka • Who are the present tourists? • National / international tourist numbers? • Demographic and geographic profile? • Travel motivation and satisfaction? • Product consumption? • Who are welcome? • National, regional or international tourists? • Mass tourists, high spenders, long time and travelers? • Leisure or business tourism? • Who supports positive development? Photo: a group of tourists in Sundarbans
International tourism image • Destination image: “Sum of beliefs, ideas and impressions that a person has of a destination” Kotler et al. (1994) Different image sources • News/NGO: • Only focus on the negative stories? • International tourism focus: • New7Wonders • Lonely Planet (tourism guide books): 2009 top ten interesting travel destination • 2 new travel guide books • The personal experience: • Hear stories from people who lived in Bangladesh • Travel Bangladesh: visit, business, expat, work, tourist
(International) product potential? • Sustainable products • Eco tourism • Cultural tourism • Nature tourism • Heritage tourism • Religious tourism • Adventure tourism • Volunteer / study tourism • Pro-poor tourism • The everyday life • Sustainable world icons? • Cox’s Bazar - not likely • Sundarbans – potential • Other possibilities
The tourism industry National status: “Bangladesh is still one of the countries in the South Asian region with the fewest arrivals and the lowest revenue earned from the tourism industry. Never the less, tourism has since the 1990s been a small but rapidly growing sector of the Bangladeshi economy.” Royal Danish Embassy (2008)
New sustainable tourism initiatives • ADB: Heritage Highway • USAID/IPAC: Teknaf Peninsula Community-Based Ecotourism Strategy • Katalyst: Tourism capacity development • Government • National tourism policy • National Tourism Board • Succes depend on long-term sustainable tourism strategies, knowledge and cooperation!
Present tourism organisation Bangladeshi tourism is a scattered industry Huge competion for the existing markets Lack of cooperation on all levels Goal fast economic industry groth Focus existing problems Blame between government and tourism industry Many isolated sustainable tourism resources, visions and initiatives . United forces will make a sustainable tourism movement
Networking in tourism Advise • The partners must truly want sustainable tourism development and be prepared to cooperate and communicate • When setting up partnerships structures share income and risk. • Invite an expert on tourism to participate at the earliest posible date Source: GTZ ’Sustainable Tourism as a Development Option’
Network in tourism- an overview of the stakeholders Organisations of the multilateral and bilateral co-operation Private sector: Tour operators Travel agencies Incoming agencies Employees in tourism Business associations Suply industry, souvenirs Advertising and marketing Hotels, B&B Transportation compagnies Restaurents Agriculture Guides • Public sector: • Tourism officials • Community and regional administrations • Ministries of Economic and Foreign Affairs • Ministry for Environmental Affairs and Nature Conservation Agriculture Tourism experts Tourists NGO/SHO (Non-governmental and self-help organisations): International nature conservation organisations National NGO’s Organisations of indigenous peoples Local NGO’s Local SHO’s/co-operatives Source: GTZ ’Sustainable Tourism as a Development Option’
New tourism management Industry should: Potential Bangladeshi players: International SKAL, WTTC, IATA National Associations: TOAB, ATAB, TGAB, Bangladesh Tourism Foundation Best practice players: Panigram, Guide Tours World brands in BD: Radisson, Emirates, Intrepid Travel Individual tourism players • Adapt strategic thinking to develop tourism with benefits for everyone • Include less powerful individual providers and sectors! • Extend and diversify product offerings to improve return on investments and social value • Spearhead innovative management and help spread best practice through corporate social responsibility Source: WTTC (2003)
New tourism management Government should: Potential Bangladeshi players: International UNWTO, UNESCO, OECD, PATA Regional cooperation Bhutah, Nepal, India, Myanmar National Government All relevant ministries Municipalites Bangladesh missions abroad National tourism board Parjatan • Show leadership defining management structures that can efficiently drive New Tourism • Elevate travel and tourism to strategic national level with senior level policy-making • Factor travel and tourism into all policies and decision-making, to promote sustainable tourism • High involvement: Attractions (nature and culture), regulation, research, planning, promotion etc. Source: WTTC (2003)
New tourism management All stakeholders should: Potential Bangladeshi players: International Bimtec, SNV, USAID National Development: Grameen, Katalyst Conservation: Urban Study Group, Nishorgo, Contic Media: tourism and general Private sector: Chambers of commerce and industry, investors and banks Higher education: service schools and universities • Cooperate in identifying opportunities for growth • Focus on building travel and tourism that opens up prospects for people • Work together to remove impediments to growth Source: WTTC (2003)
Summing up • Status • General sector obstaceles • National tourism obstacles • Tourism development goals • Sustainable tourism values • National and regional cooperation • Active sustainable movement • Long-term sustainable values • Knowledge sharing and cooperation on all levels • Goal: new tourism management • The Views On Tourism Project • A sustainable tourism movement communication platform?