Unit 3 Culture and Strategy. Strategy for Tourism. Reading. Objectives. After studying this chapter and related materials you should be able to understand: Culture, difference and reproduction Organisational culture Cultural web The cultural environment
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“… it all begins the day new Cast Members arrive for orientation at Disney University, the company's internal training operation. The timing couldn't be better to show them how our company thinks, to offer concrete examples of how creativity and innovation have helped us grow, and to emphasize how our ongoing traditions have been the steady hand that guides us. Those traditions are pointed out again when new Cast Members are introduced to their assigned workplaces. As they learn the culture of the company, they recognize the traditions in the standard operating procedures and established norms of their work areas…”Case Study 3: The Walt Disney Company
It describes out the way things are done in a particular organisation and forms the basis for the rules of acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. Organisational culture is thus the arbiter of organisational norms and it therefore acts as a powerful force in encouraging or frustrating the emergence of new missions and strategies. This is particularly so where culture is deeply embedded.
The term cultural web (Johnson and Scholes 1993) is a useful device for highlighting the different strands of an organisation's culture - symbols, rituals, stories and power, which add up to a paradigm - an agreed way of going about things.Organisational Culture
attitudes to authority
attitudes to work and leisure
beliefs including religion and materialism
pursuit of individual or community goals
definitions of good and bad, worthy and unworthy (the moral and ethical system)
sources of status
Cultural norms are transmitted by and changed by
governmentMission and Culture
Hofstede found five dimensions of culture in his study of national work related values:
Low vs. high power distance (PDI)
Individualism vs. collectivism (IDV)
Masculinity vs. femininity (MAS)
Low vs. high uncertainty avoidance (UAI)
Long vs. short term orientation (LTO)Hofstede
Acculturation refers to the process by which new members are inducted into the value systems of a culture.
Path dependency occurs when certain decisions and events create paths or routes into the future and exert long term effects on subsequent decisions and events.Reproduction and Path Dependency
rituals and routines
power structures and organisational structures
control systemsThe Cultural Web
set in their ways
responsive to environment
Miles and Snow (1978) distinguish between defender types, and prospector types of cultures in organisations.
Third Way politicsThe Cultural Environment
Hofstede: studied the relationship between national cultures and organizational cultures.
Ideology: a system of beliefs that directs the policies and activities of its adherents.
Cultural reproduction: the way in which culture is maintained over time and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Path dependency: when certain decisions and events create paths or routes into the future and exert long term effects on subsequent decisions and events.
Organisational culture: organisational beliefs, values and attitudes.
Cultural web: the different strands of an organisation's cultureReview of Key Terms
Construct a cultural web for a tourism entity of your choice giving examples of the components.
Explain the uses of Hofstede’s dimensions of culture for understanding the culture of a tourism entity.
What causes reproduction and path dependency? Explain why these are problems for tourism entities that you are familiar with.
Explain the interrelationship between socialism, modernization, and traditional culture in China and its relevance for the study of the culture of tourism entities.Discussion Questions
For lecturer use only:
nz tourism strategy 2015.pdfNZ Tourism Strategy