Literature Reviews Asthma Rates and Statistics - Harlem • One out of every four children in Harlem has asthma, according to a study released by the Harlem Hospital Center. • Asthma is the number one reasons kids are absent from school and become hospitalized in Harlem. • Asthma rates among children within a 24-block area in central Harlem are five times higher than the national average. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rMVn-HO93NU&feature=relmfu
Literature Reviews Asthma Rates and Statistics – The South Bronx • The South Bronx is home to miles of expressways, more than a dozen waste-transfer stations, a sewage-treatment plant and truck traffic from some of the busiest wholesale produce, meat and fish markets in the world. • It is also home to some of the highest asthma hospitalization rates for children in the city. • Of the 10 neighborhood areas in the city with the highest rates, five are in the Bronx. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gVl94nwpZ5Y
Literature Reviews Asthma Rates and Statistics - Brooklyn • “In the U.S. 50,000 to 100,000 people die prematurely from air pollution each year. Vehicles cause about 25 percent of these deaths” • In 2000, 30.6% of children were hospitalized due to asthma (NYC Health, 2000; whereas in 2004, 14-17% of children in Northwest Brooklyn lived with asthma. • Approximately 20-30% of children in Central Brooklyn and East New York have asthma. • Williamsburg and Bushwick have a higher combined rate of Asthma in children and adults, than the Bronx or Harlem.
Literature Reviews Asthma Rates and Statistics - Queens • In 2000, 20.05% of children were hospitalized due to asthma. • Has a vase amount of power plants, alongside the highways (Long Island Expressway into Grand Central Parkway) and LaGuardia airport, which can all contribute to polluted air. • Listed as the “worst-performing borough in the city in terms of controlling toxic emissions” (Environmental Protection Agency).
Emissions from Transportation Policy Content • Emissions from transportation, primarily cars, buses, and trucks, contribute a significant amount of pollution to our air on a daily basis. • Every year motor vehicles contribute approximately 11% of the local PM2.5 and 28% of the nitrogen oxide emissions. • The City has been actively finding ways to reduce emissions from motor vehicles including passing and enforcing rules to use cleaner fuels across the city and to reduce unnecessary emissions like idling.
City-Operated Motor Vehicles On May 11, 2005, Mayor Michael Bloomberg signed Local Law 39 for the year 2005 requiring that diesel fuel-powered motor vehicles owned or operated by city agencies be powered by ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSDF). The law further requires that a percentage, increasing yearly to 100 percent, of diesel fuel-powered motor vehicles with a weight of more than 8,500 pounds that are owned or operated by city agencies use the best available retrofit technology (BART) or be equipped with an engine certified to the 2007 EPA standard for reducing the emission of pollutants. • Sight-Seeing Buses On May 11, 2005, Mayor Michael Bloomberg signed Local Law 41 for the year 2005requiring that any sight-seeing bus that is licensed by the Department of Consumer Affairs (DCA) and is equipped with an engine that is over three years old shall use the best available retrofit technology (BART)for reducing the emission of pollutants.
Non-road Vehicles (Construction Equipment, Generators, etc.) On December 22, 2003, Mayor Michael Bloomberg signed Local Law 77 for the year 2003 requiring any diesel-powered non-road vehicle, fifty horsepower and greater, that is owned by, operated by or on behalf of, or leased by a City agency be powered by ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSDF) and utilize the best available technology (BAT) for reducing the emission of pollutants. • Sanitation Vehicles On May 9, 2005, Mayor Michael Bloomberg signed Local Law 40 for the year 2005 requiring that any solid waste contract or recyclable materials contract specify that diesel fuel-powered vehicles and diesel fuel-powered non-road vehicles used in the performance of such contracts be powered by ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSDF).
School Buses On May 11, 2005, Mayor Michael Bloomberg signed Local Law 42 for the year 2005 requiring that by September 1, 2006 all diesel fuel-powered school buses shall be powered by ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSDF). The law further requires that a percentage, increasing yearly to 100 percent, of diesel fuel-powered motor vehicles with a weight of more than 8,500 pounds that are owned or operated by city agencies use the best available retrofit technology (BART) or be equipped with an engine certified to the 2007 EPA standard for reducing the emission of pollutants.
Current Circumstances What is Idling? - An idling vehicle is one whose engine is running when it is parked or not in motion. Common places to idle include schools, banks, and drive-thrus. • Idling restrictions have been in place since 1971 with drivers having 3 minutes to turn off idling engines. • More stringent laws passed in 2009 leaving drivers with one minute to turn off their engines if they are in front of a school. • Difficult to implement law as only 1 ticket a year per police officer is given for unnecessary engine idling and Mayor Bloomberg states the “police department’s first job is going to be worrying about more serious things.”
Current Circumstances cont. • Asthma Free School Zone (“AFSZ”) is a non-profit advocacy organization that contributed to strengthening of the idling law and in pushing for the “one-minute idling limit for all vehicles in school zones.” • A 35% decrease in number of hospitalized children between 1997-2000 due to attempts of advocacy groups and community members
Current Circumstances cont. • AFSZ provides schools with “become do-it-yourself stewards of the school environment” kits which entails: • a guide • CD • DVDs • Newsletters • Lesson Plans • AFSZ signage meant to be placed outside of a school that states “No-Idling” and “No-Smoking.”
CLEAR THE AIR - Stop Idling! • How Long Should I Wait Before Turning Off My Engine? The law now limits vehicle idling to no more than ONE minute adjacent to a school–public or private. City officials are authorized to enforce the anti-idling law by issuing fines of $350 or more for violation of the anti-idling law • Protect Your Health When your vehicle is idling, it's emitting nitrous oxides and volatile organic compounds. When these molecules react with sunlight and oxygen they form ozone. Breathing high levels of ozone causes wheezing and coughing, asthma attacks, increased susceptibility to respiratory infection. Exposure to ozone over a long period of time can make your allergies worse, decrease lung function, and increase the risk of heart attacks.
Idling your engine harms your health, wastes money and fuel, and increases wear and tear on your engine • Save Money and Fuel A study conducted in New York City found that on average idling cars waste about 22 gallons of gasoline per year, while idling trucks waste about 196 gallons per year. • Reduce Wear and Tear on Your Engine When a vehicle is idling, fuel is only partially combusted, because the engine is not operating at its peak temperature. This leads to the build up of fuel residues on cylinder walls that can increase fuel consumption and damage engine components, including cylinders, spark plugs, and exhaust systems.
CLEAR THE AIR Stop Idling!