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Air Pollution
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Air Pollution

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  1. Air Pollution

  2. Outline • Classification • Composition of air • Sources of air pollution • Effects • Controls • Major air pollution problems • Air policy and Legislation • Air Pollution Index (API)

  3. Types of air pollution • Personal air pollution • Occupational pollution • Community / environmental air pollution

  4. Sources • Natural • Man-made

  5. Natural • Wind-blow dust • Smoke • Gases from swamp • Fog • volcanic

  6. Natural Pollutants • SO2 • H2S • CO • NO,NO2 • NH3 • Hydrocarbon • CH4 • CO2 • O3

  7. Man-made • Dust • Combustion • Manufacturing • Agricultural • Nuclear energy

  8. Man-made Pollutants • Particulates • Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen • CO2 • Organic vapour • Vapour with traces of heavy metal • H2S • Radioactive

  9. Effects • Vegetation • Human beings and animals • Materials • Health

  10. Materials • Abrasion • Deposition • Chemical attack • Corrosion

  11. Health • Particulates – respiratory tracts • SO2 – respiratory, asthematic • CO2, CO - • No2 - respiratory • O3 - respiratory • Pb – nervous and cardiovascular

  12. Control • Zoning • Control at source • Use device and equipment • Use high stacks • vegetation

  13. Zoning

  14. Control at source • Replace • Reengineering • Redesign • Reduce

  15. By device • Gravitational settling chamber • Inertial collectors • Wet collectors • Fabric • Electrostatic precipitators

  16. Control at construction site • Legislation • Dust reduction measures • Stop malpractice • Notify Environmental Protection Dept

  17. Dust reduction measures • Wet by water spray • Provide hoarding to fence off the site • Product dust screen • Cover dusty materials on site and vehicles • Dispose dusty materials correctly • Cover unfinished site formation work • Provide vehicle wash basin

  18. Stop malpractice • Do not use compress air for cleaning • Do not operate without any controls • Do not stockpile dusty materials without proper procedures • Do not blast on strong wind signals

  19. Notify EPD • Site formation • Reclamation • Building demolition • Tunnel work • Building construction • Road construction

  20. Major Problems Acid Rain Ozone depletion Green House Effect Indoor Air Pollution

  21. Acid Rain • pH as low as 3 • Mainly due to Industrial pollutants • No2, So2 and volatile organic vapour are converted to acidic compounds

  22. Effects of Acid Rain • Natural life • Building materials • Crops and vegetation • Cause deteriation of soil

  23. Ozone depletion • Ozone exist in stratosphere (outer atmosphere) • Ozone is used to shield ultra-violet light (short-wave length) • Ozone is depleted by CFC (carbo-halogen-compound) • Nitrous oxide contribute to depletion of ozone

  24. Effects of Ozone depletion • Skin cancer • Eye sickness • Kill phytoplankton • Decrease in food supplies • More CO2

  25. Green House Effects • Absorb long-wave (ultra-red) • Let in short-wave and absorb long wave • Acts like a glass in a green house • Cause global warmness

  26. Effects of Green house • Rise of water temperature and causing global climate changes

  27. Indoor Air Pollution • CO • Formaldehyde • Radon • NO2

  28. Effects of indoor air quality • Sick building syndrome

  29. Control

  30. Control • Land use planning • Enforcement of Air Pollution Ordinance • AQO • Restrict certain specified process/trades

  31. Hong Kong Air Quality Objective • SO2 • TSP • RSP • NO2 • CO • Ozone • Lead

  32. AQO • Exposure in hours • Exposure quantity

  33. Air Pollution Index

  34. What is API ? • The API is an index that converts several pollutants into a value ranging from 0 – 500 • API forecast serves as a warning to the public

  35. How is it determined • It is calculated by comparing the measured concentration of major air pollutants with their respective health related AQO. • These pollutants are NO2, SO2, ozone, CO, and RSP. • APIs for each of these pollutants are calculated and the highest API number is reported. • API’s are reported hourly.

  36. How to use APIs ? • The API values are divided into 5 bands. • We can relate API to the followings • Air Quality status • Air Pollution level • Health implication • Actions recommended

  37. Locations of monitoring

  38. Roadside API