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Revolutions 11/30/09 OBJECTIVE : First day of school administrative stuff. I. Welcome Back  II. Attendance III. Distribution of: -syllabus, points, and test dates -textbooks -desks, coats, floor, & bags -snow days IV. Homework.

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revolutions 11 30 09 http students resa net milewski
Revolutions 11/30/09
  • OBJECTIVE: First day of school administrative stuff.
  • I. Welcome Back 
  • II. Attendance
  • III. Distribution of:

-syllabus, points, and test dates


-desks, coats, floor, & bags

-snow days

  • IV. Homework
last name first name book
Last-name, First-name Book #
  • Describe condition of the book
important stuff
Important Stuff
  • Web-site:
  • Homework Due Friday 12/4/09

1.) Book covered

2.) Syllabus signed and returned

3.) Chapter#14 sections (1-3)

revolutions 12 1 09 http students resa net milewski
Revolutions 12/1/09
  • OBJECTIVE: Examine the beginnings of the Renaissance.
  • I. Journal #1 pt. A

-Read “The story about Michelangelo” p.342

-Who was Michelangelo?

II. Journal #1 pt. B

-notes on the Renaissance (14.1)

  • III. Homework (due Friday)

1.) Syllabus signed and returned

2.) Read Ch#14 sec#1 p.342-349

-Answer questions (1-7)* p.349

3.) Read Ch#14 sec#2 p.349-353

-Answer questions (1-7)* p.353

4.) Read Ch#14 sec#3 p.353-357

-Answer questions (1-7)* p.357

*Pick 4 questions of your choice

  • Means rebirth, or revival
  • It began in Northern Italy in the 1300’s and spread across Europe.
  • It was a period of vigorous artistic and intellectual activity.
  • It produced a new attitude toward learning.
  • This supported an adventurous spirit and led to the voyages of discovery and the scientific revolution that completely changed the way the universe was viewed.
  • A Renaissance thinker was well versed in many fields of study (liberal arts)
liberal arts
Liberal Arts
  • The Liberal Arts were divided into the Trivium ("the three roads") and the Quadrivium ("the four roads").
  • The Trivium consisted of:
  • Grammar
  • Rhetoric
  • Logic
  • The Quadrivium consisted of:
  • Arithmetic -- Number in itself
  • Geometry -- Number in space
  • Music, Harmonics, or Tuning Theory -- Number in time
  • Astronomy or Cosmology -- Number in space and time

why italy
Why Italy?
  • Italy was the home of the center of ancient Rome, it made sense that it started there.
  • Plenty of ruins of the “Empire” to study
  • Northern Italian cities had survived the Middle Ages.
  • These cities grew rich from trade.
  • These wealth merchants supported education & individual achievement.

  • By the 1400’s, the Medici family in Florence had gain great wealth & influence. (Bankers)
  • They were great patrons of the arts, especially Lorenzo.
  • The Ponte Vecchio and the Arno River in Florence, Italy.
  • Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli 1469-1527 was a political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. He is most widely known for his treatises on political theory. The Prince.
  • It was written for the instruction of the Medici after they had just regained power.
  • The end justifies the means.

the prince
The Prince
  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • Dedication
  • Chapter I: How Many Kinds of Principlaities There are, and by What means they are Acquired
  • Chapter II: Concerning Hereditary Principalities
  • Chapter III: Concerning Mixed Principalities
  • Chapter IV: Why The Kingdom of Darius, Conquered by Alexander, Did Not Rebel Against The Successors of Alexander At His Death
  • Chapter V: Concerning The Way To Govern Cities Or Principalities Which Lived Under Their Own Laws Before They Were Annexed
  • Chapter VI: Concerning New Principalities Which Are Acquired by One's Own Arms And Ability
  • Chapter VII: Concerning New Principalities Which Are Acquired Either by The Arms of Others Or by Good Fortune
  • Chapter VIII: Concerning Those Who Have Obtained A Principality by Wickedness
  • Chapter IX:Concerning A Civil Principality
  • Chapter X: Concerning The Way In Which The Strength of All Principalities Ought To Be Measured Chapter XI: Concerning Ecclesiastical Principalities Chapter XII: How Many Kinds of Soldiery There Are, And Concerning Mercenaries
  • Chapter XIII: Concerning Auxiliaries, Mixed Soldiery, And One's Own
  • Chapter XIV: That Which Concerns A Prince On The Subject of The Art of War
  • Chapter XV: Concerning Things For Which Men, And Especially Princes, Are Praised Or Blamed
  • Chapter XVI: Concerning Liberality And Meanness
  • Chapter XVII: Concerning Cruelty And Clemency, And Whether It Is Better To Be Loved Than Feared
  • Chapter XVIIII [*]: Concerning The Way In Which Princes Should Keep Faith Chapter XIX: That One Should Avoid Being Despised And HatedChapter XX: Are Fortresses, And Many Other Things To Which Princes often Resort, Advantageous Or Hurtful?
  • Chapter XXI: How A Prince Should Conduct Himself So As To Gain Renown
  • Chapter XXII: Concerning The Secretaries of Princes
  • Chapter XXIII: How Flatterers Should Be Avoided
  • Chapter XXIV: Why The Princes of Italy Have Lost Their States
  • Chapter XXV: What Fortune Can Effect In Human Affairs And How To Withstand Her
  • Chapter XXVI: An Exhortation To Liberate Italy From The Barbarians
  • Intellectual movement based on the study of worldly subjects rather than on the religious issues that had occupied medieval scholars.
  • Were the promoters of education (liberal arts)
  • The Greats: Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Donatello.
renaissance moves north
Renaissance moves North
  • Italy recovered from the Black Death (The Plague) faster than northern Europe. For that reason, it took the Renaissance 100 years to make it North.
  • Flemish painters (Netherlands, Belgium) used Italian techniques in art p.350
  • Painting in the North are usually darker.

northern humanists
Northern Humanists
  • Stresses the liberal arts, but also stressed religious themes.
  • They used the classics to bring about religious & moral reforms.
  • Desiderius Erasmus – (Dutch) created a better translation of the Latin New Testament (New Testament was written in Greek)
  • He also called for the Bible to be translated into vernacular (language of each people)
  • Sir Thomas More – (English) pushed for economic & social reforms.
  • He called for an elimination of private property (Communist?)
renaissance literature
Renaissance Literature
  • Shakespeare – (English) Tons of commentaries on love, history, rivalries, etc…
  • Cervantes - (Spanish) Don Quixote mocks the romantic notions of medieval chivalry.
  • The Printing Press made the works of Renaissance authors available to the masses along with the writings of the ancients.
  • Books became cheap and Europeans were exposed to new ideas.,GGLG:2005-29,GGLG:en%26sa%3DN

revolutions 12 2 09 http students resa net milewski
Revolutions 12/2/09
  • OBJECTIVE: Examine The Way We Are.
  • I. Administrative Stuff


  • II. The Day the Universe Changed

-questions on episode#1 “The Way We Are”

  • III. Homework due Friday 12/4/09

1.) Syllabus signed and returned

2.) Read Ch#14 sec#1 p.342-349

-Answer questions (1-7)* p.349

3.) Read Ch#14 sec#2 p.349-353

-Answer questions (1-7)* p.353

4.) Read Ch#14 sec#3 p.353-357

-Answer questions (1-7)* p.357

*Pick 4 questions of your choice

revolutions 12 3 09 http students resa net milewski
Revolutions 12/3/09
  • OBJECTIVE: Examine the beginnings of the Reformation.
  • I. Journal #2 pt. A

-Examine the picture on p.355

-Answer the caption question on p.355

  • II. Journal #2 pt. B

-notes on the Reformation (14.3)

  • III. Journal#2 pt.C

-notes on film about the reformation

the protestant reformation
The Protestant Reformation
  • Protestant = protest
  • Reformation= reform
  • The goal of the Protestant Reformation was to protest the authority of the pope and the Roman Catholic Church and reform the Christian religion.
martin luther
Martin Luther
  • Martin Luther was a German priest who was critical of the selling of indulgences.
  • What is an indulgence?
  • An indulgence is a pardon of sins sold by the Church.
luther s 95 issues
Luther’s 95 Issues
  • In 1517, Martin Luther nailed a list of 95 questions to the door of the Wittenberg castle church.
  • In these 95 questions, know as theses, he condemned the sale of indulgences.
  • Because of the printing press, his 95 theses spread quickly and Luther found himself to be in the middle of a religious debate.

luther believed
Luther Believed
  • People could not achieve salvation through good works (like giving money to the Church) but only through God’s mercy.
  • He believed that the Bible and individual conscience outweighed the authority of the Church.
  • He rejected several of the Churches ceremonies.
  • Luther’s teachings sparked the Protestant Reformation
spread of lutheran ideas
Spread of Lutheran Ideas
  • Many saw Luther as opposition to corrupt clergy in the Catholic Church.
  • But, to many German princes, Luther’s ideas were a way to increase their own power & influence (break away from the power of the Church & the Holy Roman Empire).
  • Church property was seized.
  • Many supported Luther because he was German & they were tired of money being used to build Italian churches & line the pockets of Italian clergymen.
other reformers
Other Reformers
  • John Calvin (Calvinism) Geneva, Switzerland
  • Calvin believed in predestination. It is the belief that God has decided in advance who was getting into heaven or going to the other place.
  • So, it didn’t matter what you did in life, you fate was already decided

calvin s theocracy
Calvin’s Theocracy
  • Theocracy – government run by the religious leaders.
  • In Geneva citizens faced fines & harsh punishments for offences such as:

-fighting -swearing


-laughing in church

  • Calvin’s ideas spread.
  • In Germany, Calvinists faced opposition from Lutherans & Catholics.

christianity in europe
Christianity in Europe

henry viii
Henry VIII
  • Henry VIII (Anglican Church, the Church of England) London, England
  • Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church when the Pope refused to annul, cancel, his marriage.
  • Henry made himself the leader of the Church of England, granted himself a divorce, and adopted some Protestant beliefs.

religious wars in europe
Religious Wars in Europe
  • The Catholic Church did respond to many of the Protestant criticisms. (stopped selling indulgences).
  • But, wars broke out between Catholic nations and Protestant nations. So did civil wars between Protestants and Catholics.
revolutions 12 4 09 http students resa net milewski
Revolutions 12/4/09
  • OBJECTIVE: Examine the English Reformation.
  • I. Journal#3 pt.A

-Examine the map on p.361

-Answer one of the questions on p.361

  • II. Journal#3 pt.B

-notes on the English Reformation (14.4)

  • III. Journal#3 pt.C

-notes on film about the Reformation

branches of christianity
Branches of Christianity

branches of the reformation
Branches of the Reformation

branches of a branch
Branches of a Branch

reactions to reformation
Reactions to Reformation
  • Henry III of France wrote: “It would be have been a good thing if the city of Geneva were long ago reduced to ashes, because of the evil doctrine which has been sown from that city throughout Christendom.”
  • He was not alone in his resentment as Catholic monarchs fought the Protestant challenge.

radical reformers
Radical Reformers
  • Anabaptists – rejected Baptism of infants because they believed they were too young to understand the Christian faith.
  • Some sought radical social change like the abolition of private property (Communist?) and some advocated violence in speeding up the day of judgment.
  • Baptists, Quakers, Mennonites, and Amish all trace their ancestry to the Anabaptists.
  • Picture: radical Thomas Muentzer.

the english reformation
The English Reformation
  • While married to Catharine (wife#1), the King fell in love with Anne Boleyn (wife#2) to the point of obsession, which resulted in his desire to obtain a divorce (well that and to have a male heir).
  • The Pope and the Catholic Church would not grant it, which resulted in King Henry VIII breaking from the Church of Rome
  • In one swoop England became a protestant country; it is due to this one factor that the Anglican church, or church of England, exists.

henry viii34
Henry VIII
  • He was NOT a religious radical!
  • Aside from making himself head of the church, allowing a vernacular Bible, and allowing divorce, he kept Catholic practices in place.
  • When Henry died in 1547, his 10 year old son, Edward VI, took the throne and religious turmoil swept England.

mary tudor
Mary Tudor
  • Edward VI died in his teens, but during his reign radical Protestants wanted to impose Calvinist reforms.
  • He went with a more moderate form of Protestantism (Book of Common Prayers) but, it sparked violence.
  • When his half sister took the throne (England’s 1st female ruler she was 37), Queen Mary I, she tried to make England Catholic again.
  • Hundred’s of Protestants died at the stake earning her the nickname of Bloody Mary.

queen elizabeth i
Queen Elizabeth I
  • She knew that her half sister Elizabeth was a threat. Elizabeth was popular & Protestant.
  • In 1554, Mary imprisoned her in the Tower of London for two months then had her taken to the country.
  • In 1558, Mary died & Elizabeth became queen.
  • She followed a policy of religious compromise that was acceptable to moderates.
  • During here reign, England escaped the bloody religious conflict that swept the rest of Europe.

the council of trent 1545
The Council of Trent 1545
  • This Council appointed by Pope Paul III in 1545 in answer to the Protestant set out to systematise Catholic doctrine and canon law.
  • Celibacy was proclaimed to be superior to marriage.
  • The Catholic marriage ceremony was to be conducted by a priest in the presence of two witnesses.
  • Priests were to be trained in seminaries isolated from the community.
  • The Latin version of the Bible, the Vulgate, was declared the authentic version. (Protestants had compiled their own version)

  • The Council met in three sessions: 1545-48, 1551-52 and 1562-63. The last session was presided over by Pius IV.
council of trent decrees
Council of Trent Decrees
  • Salvation comes through faith & good works.
  • The Bible, while a major source of religious truth, in NOT the only source.
  • Stiff penalties were established for clergy that were indulged in worldiness & corruption.
  • New schools were established to better train clergy.
st ignatius of loyola
St. Ignatius of Loyola
  • In 1540, the new religious order was recognized by the Pope. They were the Jesuits.
  • Currently there are over 3,000 priests and brothers in the United States and more than 20,000 worldwide.

st ignatius of loyola40
St. Ignatius of Loyola
  • Jesuits have been engaged in the work of education.
  • At first their attention was directed toward training new members for the Society.
  • Then in 1548, Jesuits opened their first school for lay students, Collegio di San Nicolò, in Messina, Italy. Ignatius had acceded to the request of the town’s leaders that the young Society found a college where their sons would be educated in Christian virtue and humanistic learning.
  • By the time of his death in 1556, the Society operated over 35 colleges, with enrollments ranging from 60 to 900 students.