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Revolutions of the 1820s-1840s PowerPoint Presentation
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Revolutions of the 1820s-1840s

Revolutions of the 1820s-1840s

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Revolutions of the 1820s-1840s

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  1. Revolutions of the 1820s-1840s

  2. The Hanover Kings • The Georges • More German than English • Scandal, family squabbles

  3. George III • Ruled 1760-1820 • Defeated France in 7 Years War • Lost American Colonies • Gain of Ireland = United Kingdom • Mental Illness • Family Scandal • 15 Children (9 sons) but only 1 legitimate grandchild

  4. End of the Hanovers • George IV (a “dandy”) • One daughter • William IV (3rd son) • No children, succeeded by niece, Victoria

  5. Victoria • Grand-daughter of George III • Reign: 1837-1901 • Married a German prince • 9 children • Era of peace, stability, prosperity • Height of British Empire

  6. British Empire under Victoria

  7. All possessions ever owned by Britain

  8. Victorian England • Relative peace and stability • Some troubles • Irish Potato Famine • Problem of the Poor, factory workers • Right to vote extended • Growing divide between rich and poor, rich and “new rich” • India – independence movements

  9. Meanwhile . . . In the rest of EuropeFEAR

  10. Congress of Vienna • 1814-1815: reorganize Europe • Metternich (Austria), Russia (Alexander I), Prussia, Great Britain, France • France has limited role • Spain, and other small nations would have no role in decision making

  11. Congress of Vienna • France: back to pre-1789 boundaries • Belgium: Newly created • Netherlands: ruled by House of Orange • Switzerland: neutral • Russia = got Finland, control over the new kingdom of Poland • Prussia given Saxony, Westphalia, and the Rhine to create the Kingdom of Prussia • Austria received land it lost to Napoleon (parts of Germany and Italy) • Britain got several strategic colonial territories • French monarchy restored • Spanish monarchy restored • Papal States restored

  12. Congress of Verona

  13. Legacy of the Congress of Vienna Balance of Power: preserved until the unification of Germany in 1870-71 No continental war again until WWI But ignored Nationalist goals of many people (inspired by liberalism of Fr. Revo.)

  14. The “Concert” of Europe System Established The principle of collective security was established. Protect against another Napoleon. Several Treaties Maintain Balance of Power • The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle [1816] • The Congress of Troppau [1820] • The Congress of Laibach [1821] • The Congress of Verona [1822]

  15. Out with Liberalism • Which meant . . . • No Legacy of Locke (individual rights) • Restore Divine Right • Restore hereditary status and tradition • Restore state religion • Limit Freedom of thought and speech • Limited equality among MEN for voting • Keep Government support of business • Limited open and fair elections

  16. 19th Century Conservatism Conservatism arose in reaction to liberalism because Natural Rights lead only to Chaos Conservatives believed in order, society and the state, faith, and tradition. No Social Contract! “All people benefit from peace and stability”

  17. Reaction against Conservatism • Conservatism struggled due to these factors: • Nationalism • Independence Movements • Romanticism • Glorifying nationalism • Liberalism • Continue legacy of French Revolution • Abolish Absolutism

  18. Inspired by Enlightenment and French Revolution Led revolts against Conservatives throughout Europe Against divine-right monarchies, church power, old aristocracy Must protect basic rights Liberalism, Part 2

  19. Who were the Liberals? • Often the Middle class (the bourgeoisie) • Business owners, bankers, lawyers, writers • Wanted governments based on public opinion, written constitutions, and separation of power • Wanted to limit the right to vote • Male property owners/certain income level • Support laissez-faire economics • Middle Class and the workers did not have the same goals

  20. Origins of 19thCentury Liberalism England • John Locke • Adam Smith France • Jean Jacques Rousseau

  21. Nationalism • By 1815, several empires had numerous nationalities • Austria, Russia, Ottoman • Gave people with a common heritage a sense of identity • Create homelands • Nationalism bred intolerance • Persecution of other ethnic or national groups

  22. Revolutionary Movements in the Early 19th Century

  23. Independence Movements in the Balkans

  24. Serbia • Wanted independence from Ottoman Empire • Revived Serbian literature, music, folklore, culture • Fostered a Serbian identity, not that of an Ottoman identity • Turned to Russia for assistance • Common Slavic background • 1830: Serbians win autonomy (self rule) and independence

  25. Greek Revolution - 1821

  26. Greek Independence • Independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1832 • United by language and Greek orthodoxy • Turkish violence created support for freedom among Britain, France, and Russia • Greeks must accept a German king Greece on the Ruins of Missilonghi by Delacroix, 1827

  27. “Blessing of the Flag” 1821 Represents the birth of the Greek Independence movement

  28. Lord Byron – Martyr in Greece

  29. The Decembrist Uprising - 1825

  30. Conditions in Russia • Serfdom • Inefficient • Landowners opposed change • Underdeveloped • Alexander I • Originally liberal • After Napoleon, joined Congress of Vienna

  31. Decembrist Revolt -- 1825 Russian upper class had contact with western liberal ideas during the Napoleonic Wars. Late November, 1825: Czar Alexander I died suddenly. • Dynastic crisis – 1st son renounces claim • December: 3,000 army officers launch coup – Refused to take oath of allegiance to the new Tsar (Nicholas I) • Nicholas uses troops to put down dissent • “Decembrists” sent away or executed

  32. Decembrist Revolt -- 1825 Results: • Nicholas did not want liberal policies – undermined his power • Became autocratic

  33. Nicholas I • Police State • Spies • Approved textbooks only • Revolutionaries sent to Siberia (150,000) or imprisoned in mental hospitals • 3 Main Ideas • Orthodoxy: strong ties between Russian Orthodox Church and Government • Autocracy: absolute power of the state • Nationalism: respect for Russian traditions and discrimination of non-Russian groups

  34. The 1830 Revolutions

  35. 1830 Revolutions. Why?

  36. France: The “Restoration” Era (1815-1830)

  37. Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824) France was most liberal (as in “progressive”) nation in Europe Louis XVIII: ruled as a Constitutional monarch. • Constitution of the Restoration: • Limited royal power • Legislative power • Protected civil rights. • Upheld Napoleonic Code

  38. Conservative Reaction: The “Ultras” Count of Artois: leader of “Ultra-Royalists” – want to restore Conservatism 1815 “White Terror” • Royalist mobs killed thousands of former revolutionaries. 1816 elections • Ultras out • Moderates in with middle class support The Count of Artoisthe future King Charles X (r. 1824-1830)

  39. France: Conservative Backlash 1820: son of Artois murdered. Royalists blamed leftists (liberals) Louis XVIII moved the govt. more to the right • Limited eligible voters • Increased censorship • Liberals must go “underground”

  40. Charles XReigned 1824-1830

  41. Charles X Goals: • Lessen influence of middle class • Limit right to vote • Clergy back in charge of education • Public money pays nobles for the loss of land during Revolution His Reign: • Controlled the press • Dismissed the Chamber of Deputies when it turned against him

  42. 1830: Downfall of Charles X 1830 Election brought in another liberal majority. July Ordinances • Charles dissolved parliament • Stricter censorship • Changed voting laws. Government could be assured of a conservative victory

  43. 1830: Revolution, Again!

  44. 1830: France • Suspension of civil rights = rebellion • Paris: riots against soldiers. Anarchy. • Charles abdicates • Radicals want new government, but moderate liberals want a constitutional monarchy • Chamber of Deputies selects a royal cousin, who had supported the 1789 Revolution, as new king • No association with ultra conservative “Ultras”

  45. Louis Philippe  The “Citizen King” Very bourgeois His Reign: • Property qualifications reduced to double eligible voters • Censorship abolished • Ruledby the will of the people, not by the will of God. • “King of the French” Government under control of the wealthy middle class. (r. 1830-1848)

  46. Louis Philippe – Citizen King Ignored needs and demands of city workers July, 1832  Uprising in Paris put down by force. 800 killed or wounded 1834  Strikes are crushed by Gov. Seething underclass A caricature ofLouis Philippe

  47. French Revolution of 1848 • Discontent: Radicals formed secret societies, plotted against the king • Economic recession • Poor harvests, bread prices rose, factories shut down, unemployment • “February Days”: Mass riots in Paris, royal troops kill citizens • Louis Phillippe abdicates

  48. Second Republic -- 1848 • Proclaimed by radical and socialist leaders • Deep divides in new Gov. • Middle class wants moderate political reforms that benefit middle classes • Socialist wanted extreme social/economic change to help workers • “June Days”: More riots, 1500 killed • National Assembly creates a one-house system with a strong president • Elections • Voting: increases from 200,000 to 9 million

  49. Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) • 90% vote for LN • “Cares for the people” • Heritage links him with conservatives • 1852: declares himself emperor • Restore glory of France • Ruled during a period of economic growth