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How did Russia become the USSR only to become the CIS? USSR: UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS. CIS: COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES. KARL MARX. The Russian Revolution. In 1905, the first in a series of revolutions was to happen Nicholas I ordered the protesters shot

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How did Russia become the USSR only to become the CIS? USSR: UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS

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    2. KARL MARX

    3. The Russian Revolution • In 1905, the first in a series of revolutions was to happen • Nicholas I ordered the protesters shot • This massacre became known as “Bloody Sunday” • Protests and riots continued to spread until Nicholas was forced to allow the people some form of constitutional government

    4. Nicholas II

    5. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • The Russian Revolution of 1917 – 1919 began as a unified movement aimed at simply overthrowing the monarchial regime of Czar Nicholas II • It grew into a vast struggle for power • A struggle between several factions with the faction that was able to secure the support of the Russian military winning control of the government

    6. The Russian Revolution

    7. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the Bolsheviks • He was an incredibly popular person in Russia, having escaped the Czar and living in the West for several years before he returned to Moscow in 1917 • Lenin was able to gain the support of some of the most popular Marxists in Russia

    8. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Josef Stalin, Leon Trotsky and Aleksandr Kerensky became his main leaders and supporters • These men were able to persuade the military to withdraw from World War I and concentrate their efforts on maintaining order at home • With Lenin’s and Trotsky’s advanced speaking skills they were very successful in motivating the people to their cause

    9. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • The Bolsheviks were also very organized • Their people were everywhere and the other factions trying for control were not well organized • By late 1922, the Bolsheviks had organized the Marxists of Ukraine, Belarus, and Transcaucasia to form a “socialist republic” with Russia • The Soviet Union had arrived

    10. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • In 1923, Lenin began to travel all over the former Russian Empire trying to seek support from the old guards of the Czar • He was unsuccessful • These old leaders were much more willing to keep control for themselves than allow Lenin to command • Lenin ordered Trotsky, who had become the leader of the military, now called the Red Army, to send in troops to these areas as a show of strength

    11. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Eventually, all former empire lands were returned to Lenin, with the notable exception of the Baltic States • From 1921 to 1924, the economy of the Soviet Union was in shambles • The mismanagement of the Czars and the civil war left the ruble, the USSR’s main currency, practically valueless

    12. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Lenin was unable really to do anything about this and most of the country headed for famine • When Lenin died in 1924, many believed that the USSR was doomed to die with him • From 1924-1928, a vast power struggle between StalinTrotsky, and Kerensky took place

    13. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Stalin, being the more vicious of the three immediately began to form alliances with people throughout the new cominterm • The cominterm was a new Congress to replace the Duma (eventually it would be called the Politburo) • Kerensky was taken care of because of his own erratic behavior in the military • Trotsky, however, had his own political aspirations and had followers of his own

    14. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Trotsky began to organize the people to his cause to keep the USSR from Stalin • Stalin was able to have him exiled from the country • Trotsky moved to Mexico where Stalin had him killed in 1940 • Stalin became the outright dictator of the Soviet Union • He moved away from Lenin’s policies and began to institute his own

    15. Joseph Stalin/Man of Steel

    16. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Lenin believed in more democracy and less government. • Stalin believed in death for those who opposed him • In 1928, Stalin completely changed the course of the Soviet Union that Lenin had set • He forced “Collectivation” on the farmers and peasants

    17. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • A collective farm is an incredibly large farm owned by the government that the peasants were “allowed” to live on and work • Those who refused were killed • The farmers very quickly realized that to oppose Stalin in any way meant exile or death • Stalin also began a massive industrialization campaign

    18. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Industry was given a quota system • They were required to reach production targets of military and popular good regardless of the cost • Many people worked 12-15 hour days to keep up with these quotas • Finally, convinced that the factory owners were too concerned about themselves to manage effectively, he ordered his own people to take over

    19. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • By 1933, all industry was being run by the state • The people were mistreated and overworked for little reward • Of course, they could have stopped working and be murdered by the officials of a newly formed organization, the KGB • The KGB became the eyes, ears, and enforcer of all of Stalin’s policies

    20. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • After forming the KGB, Stalin began to realize that many of his own generals and officials believed that he had betrayed Lenin, and were conspiring to have him removed from power • Stalin immediately ordered the KGB to begin mass executions of certain high ranking officials and the exile of others • The period from 1933-1937 became known as the “Great Purge"

    21. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Stalin had economic plans known as “five year plans" • These five year plans specified the quotas that all industry was to meet and even told the factories what to make • The first from 1924-1928 concentrated mostly on agriculture, but the second from 1928-1932 concentrated almost completely on industry

    22. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Stalin had been very wary of a new German military resurgence and the third five years from 1933-1937 converted Soviet factories to the creation of military hardware • After hearing from his agents in Germany that Hitler had almost completely re-armed, Stalin even quickened his pace

    23. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • He knew though that he was not prepared to fight the Germans and decided to offer them a deal • Stalin and Hitler hated each other, but respected each others military might. They signed a treaty called the “Non-Aggression Pact of 1939” • This treaty stated that they would never go to war against each other and that they would divide Poland and the Baltic States between them

    24. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland • The world panicked as Britain and France declared war on Hitler, starting World War II • Stalin very quietly moved in and took the Baltic States and half of Poland • The world did not even realize what Stalin had done until months later

    25. The Big Three-Churchill, Roosevelt & Stalin

    26. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • They quickly let him off the hook when he explained that he was only “protecting” these people from the Germans • He proved himself justified in June of 1941, when Hitler broke their agreement and invaded the Soviet Union • Hitler easily crushed the Red Army

    27. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • By October of 1941, the German armies had Moscow and Leningrad (formerly St. Petersburg, and named after Vladimir Lenin) surrounded • The Soviets were caught off guard by the technological superiority of the Germans • Hitler, however, was a poor history student

    28. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • He failed to learn Napoleon Bonaparte’s lesson of over one hundred winters before (1812-14) when he was forced to retreat to France in the middle of the Russian winter • The German armies, outfitted in only summer clothing, were caught in the open when winter hit • It was a simple matter for the Soviets to cut their supply lines

    29. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Hitler lost over one million troops and this became a major turning point in the war • With the American entry in the war in 1941 the tide changed • Germany was in retreat on all fronts • The USSR quickly took back all Soviet land and began to push its way into Eastern Europe

    30. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • With the Americans and the British pushing the Germans back in the West it was only a matter of time before Hitler surrendered • Stalin’s new military now occupied all of the Baltic States, Poland, East Germany (including the capital, Berlin), Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria

    31. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • A post-war agreement with the US and Britain at Yalta guaranteed that the Soviets would withdraw from these countries when stable governments existed there • Stalin installed “stable” governments in these countries that were Communist and answered to him • Soviet troops never withdrew from these countries

    32. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • The Iron Curtain and the Cold War were beginning in 1945 • The Cold War became a term describing the tension between the U.S. and USSR created by threat of nuclear war. • American President Roosevelt had kept Stalin in the dark as to America’s nuclear bomb program • Stalin was stunned with the Americans dropped two atomic bombs on Japan to end the war

    33. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Stalin ordered his people to search Hitler’s archives for any research in nuclear physics that would allow the USSR to develop its own bomb • Scientists and politicians in Moscow, tired of war again, began to oppose Stalin • He again began a pure to get rid of these people

    34. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • But Stalin had learned a great deal about how to motivate people since his purges of the 1930’s and he found a better way to gain his people’s support • Instead of simply killing these people, Stalin bean to round up entire families • He would send some to exile to Siberia where they would work in coal and mineral mines, and would send others to industrial cities where they could work on his weapons programs

    35. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • These people were told that if they ever wanted to see their families again they would do exactly what they were told • People who were of little value to Stalin were systematically killed • It is estimated that 30 million people died on Stalin’s orders between 1924-1953

    36. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Stalin spent the rest of his life in fear that old rivals were attempting to remove him from power • He continued his purges and killing right up to his death in 1953 • Stalin was so powerful in the USSR that no one would dare oppose him when he was alive

    37. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • After his death, many in the USSR talked of returning to Lenin’s original ideals and introducing more freedom to the people of the country • A man who was very influential in the Politburo was able to take power after Stalin died • He promised reforms to the Communists, but quickly went back on these promises

    38. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • He began to create the most powerful military the world had ever known • His name was Nikita Khrushchev • Khrushchev began to devote incredible amounts of money and resources to both space and military matters • In 1959, the USSR shocked the world by placing the first artificial satellite in orbit around the earth

    39. Nikita Khrushchev

    40. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • It was called Sputnik • This was a tremendous boost to the morale of the Russian people, but it was also a warning • The USSR was now capable of not only placing satellites in orbit, but they could do the same with nuclear weapons • Khrushchev continued his buildup until a Soviet Cosmonaut was launched into space

    41. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Russia became the first country to be able to put a human into orbit and return him safely to earth • His name was Yuri Gagarin • Khrushchev’s military became so powerful that by 1960, the USSR had made tanks, planes, nuclear weapons, submarines, and aircraft carriers than the United States

    42. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • He then invaded Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and began to p lace nuclear weapons in these countries • Fearing a Soviet takeover, the people of East Germany began to leave their country for freedom in the West • In one week over 100,000 people fled

    43. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Khrushchev ordered the border sealed, and began to construct a wall that would become the symbol of oppression to the world • By 1962, the Berlin Wall completely encircled the city of Berlin • President Kennedy started what became known as the Berlin airlift to ensure that the Soviets could not take over the rest of the city

    44. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • At the same time Khrushchev secretly began to put nuclear missiles in the country of Cuba • Cuba is located 90 miles from the United States • If Khrushchev could get these missile sites operational, he could launch an attack against the United States with no warning what-so-ever

    45. The Cuban Missile Crisis • Lenin • Stalin • Khrushchev

    46. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Khrushchev did not know however, that the United States knew of his plans in Cuba after a “U-2” spy plane took overhead pictures of the missile sites • President Kennedy called for the massing of over one million troops in Europe to prepare for war with the USSR • Kennedy moved aircraft carriers, tanks, and destroyers close to Soviet territory

    47. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR • Kennedy stunned the world by announcing on national public television and told Khrushchev in private that he had 24 hours to remove the missiles from Cuba or the United States might launch a full scale nuclear strike against the USSR • No one had ever made this threat before and Khrushchev made the publicstatement, “. . . we will crush you.”