The American and French Revolutions took place in the late 1700s. • Within twenty years, the ideas and examples of these revolutions influenced the people of Latin America to establish independent nations, most notably in Haiti and Mexico.
Toussaint L’Ouverture • Born a slave • Granted freedom in 1777 • Formed his own army • L’Ouverture- nickname meaning “the opening” • Inspired by revolutions in France and America • Led the revolt in Haiti
Contributions of Toussaint L’Ouverture • Results: • Defeated the armies of three foreign powers: Spain, France, and Britain. • Abolished slavery • Won independence
The Haitian Revolution 1791–1804 • Very brutal insurrection
Miguel Hidalgo • Catholic priest who was a leader of the revolt that sparked the Mexican War for Independence • Ignited uprising of poor Mexicans (indigenous and mestizo peasants) against Spanish ruling class (peninsulares)
Mexican War of Independence • “el Grito de Dolores” • "Cry of Independence“- • a call to fight for Mexican independence. • Separation of Mexico from Spain • Result of the war: end to slavery and exploitation of native people • Hidalgo was executed but sparked the movement
Father Jose Morelos • Mexico • Multiracial/Mestizo • Wanted to improve conditions, abolish slavery, give vote to all men. • Captured and shot in 1815.
Simon Bolivar • Native-born resident who led revolutionary efforts • Began campaign to rebel against royalty • Influenced by Rousseau • Supported a constitutional monarchy • Hoped to unite with Venezuela and Columbia (Gran Columbia)
Simon Bolivar • el Libertador • Native-born resident who led revolutionary efforts • Began campaign to rebel against royalty • Influenced by Rousseau
Simon Bolivar • Columbia • 1810: Part of Gran Columbia in 1819 • 1828: Gran Columbia broke into various nations
José de San Martín • Brazil/1822 • Area controlled by Portugal
Prince Dom Pedro • Brazil/1822 • Support from Britain kept Brazil united
Monroe Doctrine 1823 Issued by American President James Monroe Primary Objective: to free the newly independent colonies of Latin America from European intervention and control.
Monroe Doctrine 1823 Latin American nations were acknowledged as independent European efforts to colonize land/interfere within the Americas would be viewed by U.S. as acts of aggression requiring US intervention Asserted that the Western Hemisphere was not to be further colonized by European countries
Characteristics of the Colonial System • Colonial governments mirrored the home governments • A viceroy, or representative ruled in the name of the King (monarch)
A Layered Society • The separation of the various peoples in the colonies created a very intricate list of names to describe one's precise race and, by consequence, one's place in society • Peninsulares-born in Spain, held highest positions in colonial government and Catholic Church • Creole- American born descendants of Spanish settlers, owned most of the plantations, ranches and mines. Treated as second class citizens.
A Layered Society • Mestizo- Native American and European descendant • Mulatto- African and European descendant • African and Native American descendant were the lowest social class
http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/cox_corr/g_exp/monroe.cfm?closeup=1http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/cox_corr/g_exp/monroe.cfm?closeup=1 • Allyn CoxOil on Canvas1973-1974 • Responding to Russian territorial claims along the northern Pacific coast, and concerned that European nations would attempt to seize recently independent Latin American states, President James Monroe announced a new national policy. No new colonies would be allowed in the Americas, and European powers were not to interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. This mural depicts a discussion among the president and members of his cabinet; from left to right are President James Monroe, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, Attorney General William Wirt, Secretary of War John Calhoun, and Secretary of the Navy Samuel L. Southard.
Independence in Latin America • How did the French and American Revolutions influence Latin American independence movements? • Influence of the American and French Revolutions on the Americas • Slaves in Haiti rebelled, abolished slavery, and won independence. • Father Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican independence movement. • Independence came to French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies. • Locations of selected countries that gained independence during the 1800s • The contributions of Toussaint L’Ouverture and Simon Bolivar, led to the development of independent states in Latin America in the nineteenth century. • What were the contributions of Toussaint L’Ouverture and Simon Bolivar to revolutions in Latin America?
Monroe Doctrine • After the American Revolution, the United States wished to prevent foreign interference in America. The Monroe Doctrine was issued in 1823, alerting European powers that the American continents should not be considered for any future colonization. • How did the Monroe Doctrine impact revolutions in Latin America? • Monroe Doctrine was issued by American President, James Monroe in 1823. • Latin American nations were acknowledged to be independent. • The United States would regard as a threat to its own peace and safety any attempt by European powers to impose their system on any independent state in the Western Hemisphere. • What influenced the people of Latin America to establish independent nations? • The Latin American colonies of what three nations rebelled as a result of the American and French revolutions? • Who led the rebellion in Haiti? • Who led the revolutions in South America?