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Pelvic Floor Anatomy. Colorectal Conference 7/21/05 Peter M. Kaye, M.D. The Pelvic Floor. Musculotendinous hammock or sling Termination of the pelvic outlet Muscles of the pelvis Anal sphincter complex Levator ani muscles Support the abdominal and pelvic organs

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pelvic floor anatomy

Pelvic Floor Anatomy

Colorectal Conference

7/21/05

Peter M. Kaye, M.D.

the pelvic floor
The Pelvic Floor
  • Musculotendinous hammock or sling
  • Termination of the pelvic outlet
  • Muscles of the pelvis
    • Anal sphincter complex
    • Levator ani muscles
  • Support the abdominal and pelvic organs
  • Connect the pelvis to the vertebral column
  • Maintain continence
anal sphincter complex
Anal Sphincter Complex
  • Internal anal sphincter
  • Conjoined longitudinal muscle
  • External anal sphincter
internal anal sphincter
Internal Anal Sphincter
  • Extension of the circular muscle layer of the rectum
  • Constant maximal contraction
  • 50-85% of resting anal tone
  • Autonomic innervation
    • Parasympathetic…..S2-4
    • Sympathetic……..thoracolumbar ganglia (L5)
  • Suggested that both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation cause inhibition of contraction
conjoined longitudinal muscle
Conjoined Longitudinal Muscle
  • Extension of the longitudinal muscle layer of the rectum, along with levator ani muscle fibers
  • Structural support, anchoring the anorectum to the pelvis
external anal sphincter
External Anal Sphincter
  • Multiple layers of striated muscle
  • Voluntary contractions to prevent fecal leak
  • 25-30% of resting anal tone
  • Somatic innervation from the inferior rectal branch of the pudendal nerve (S2-3) and the perineal branch of S4
levator ani muscles
Levator Ani Muscles
  • Pubococcygeus
  • Iliococcygeus
  • Puborectalis
  • Ischiococcygeus
puborectalis
Puborectalis
  • U-shaped, medial most located levator ani muscle
  • Pulls the anorectal junction anteriorly, forming the anorectal angle
  • Pelvic floor muscle vs. sphincter muscle?
functional anatomy
Functional Anatomy
  • Puborectalis and the anorectal angle allow for gross fecal continence
  • Relieves pressure from the sphincter process
  • The sphinter complex is responsible for gas and liquid continence
  • Defecation
    • Relaxation of the puborectalis
    • Contraction of the other levator muscles
functional anatomy10
Functional Anatomy
  • Rectal prolapse
  • Laxity in sphincter complex and levator muscles