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Making Learnable Texts: Interaction Between t he Reader a nd t he Text. E. Vidal-Abarca, R. Gilabert, & T. Martinez University of Valencia. Theoretical Framework. Instructional text: too many inferences Text Revision procedures:

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making learnable texts interaction between t he reader a nd t he text

Making Learnable Texts: Interaction Between the Reader and the Text

E. Vidal-Abarca, R. Gilabert, & T. Martinez

University of Valencia

theoretical framework
Theoretical Framework
  • Instructional text: too many inferences
  • Text Revision procedures:
    • Relationships between text ideas explicit (e. g., Britton & Gülgöz, 1991)
    • Information to connect text ideas (e. g., Vidal-Abarca et al., 2000)
  • Reducing vs. Facilitating inferences
revision to facilitate inferences with etat
Revision to facilitate inferenceswith ETAT
  • ETAT: Software to analyse expository text
  • Revision:
    • Analysis of text ideas
    • Adding info (text ideas)
  • Graph
  • Statistics
  • Rules
the evolution of species vidal abarca et al 2002 b

2 (E)

14 (S)

22 (G)

40 (S)

32 (S)

29 (S)

46 (E)

The Evolution of Species(Vidal-Abarca et al., 2002b)

M = 1.54 (+ 26%)

SD = 1.87 (+ 30%)

Expl: 38 % (+ 0%)

  • 11th graders
  • Questions: favored vs. NOT fav
  • Revised > Original (Qs fav)
current study
Current study
  • 3 experiments
  • Goal:
    • Test procedure with younger students
    • Analyse strategies
    • Comprehension processes & Text technology
experiment 1
Experiment 1
  • Goal: test procedure with younger students
  • Method:
    • 6th-grade children
    • Text: Work (Original vs. Revised)
    • Measurement
      • Prior background knowledge
      • Comprehension: 4 simple + 4 complex (favored) questions
    • Procedure: Read text + Answer Qs (text available)
  • Hypotheses:
    • Revised > Original (Complex Qs)
    • Revised = Original (Simple Qs)
human work revised

5G

20G

12E

14E

Human Work (REVISED)
  • 5th-grade text
  • 281 words (+24%)
  • Links per node:
    • M = 1.18 (+26%)
    • SD = 1.18 (+9%)
  • 12 % Explicit links
questions
Questions

Simple

Complex

  • Connect 2 consecutive sentences
  • Few inferences
  • Connect 3-5 sentences
  • Many inferences
  • Favored by added info
results exp 1
Results (Exp. 1)
  • Simple Qs: Orig > Rev
  • Compl Qs: Orig = Rev
  • Discussion
    • Hypoth Disconfirmed
    • Poor strategies?
experiment 2
Experiment 2
  • Goal: test procedure with older students (better strategies)
  • Method:
    • 8th-grade children
    • Prior knowledge equal to 6th-grade children
    • Text, Measurement & procedure: Same as Exp 1
  • Hypotheses: (Same as Exp 1)
    • Revised > Original (Complex Qs)
    • Revised = Original (Simple Qs)
results exp 2
Results (Exp. 2)
  • Simple Qs: Orig = Rev
  • Compl Qs: Orig < Rev
  • Discussion
    • Hypoths Confirmed
    • Better strategies 8th-g
experiment 3
Experiment 3
  • Goal: analyse processing strategies
  • Method:
    • 6th & 8th-grade children
    • Prior knowledge equivalent + Lexical access
    • Text: Only Revised version
    • Measurement: off-line + on-line
    • Procedure: reading & Q-A on computer (Read&Answer)
  • Hypotheses:
    • 8th > 6th (specially Complex Qs)
    • Processing strategies explain 8th > 6th
on line measurements

Control: cycles of RQ-LT-RT

On-line measurements
  • First reading of Text
  • Question-answering
    • Reading Question
    • Locating Text relevant info
    • Reading Text relevant info
on line measurements19
On-line measurements
  • First reading of Text
  • Question-answering
    • Reading Question
    • Locating Text relevant info
    • Reading Text relevant info
off line results exp 3
Off-line Results (Exp. 3)
  • Summary:
    • Simple Qs: 8th > 6th
    • Compl Qs: 8th > 6th
on line results exp 3 search

Time reading questions

% Number Relevant segments opened

% Time Relevant segments opened

On-line Results (Exp. 3): Search
analysis of q a processes
Analysis of Q-A processes
  • Selection of participants:
    • Best: 5 (four 8th graders, one 6th grader)
    • Poorest: 4 (6th gaders)
  • 72 Q-A sequences (9 participants x 8 questions)
    • 20 bad answers (mostly from poor participants)
    • 52 good answers (mostly from good participants)
sequence for good answers

Text

Re-read relevant segment

Text

Re-read relevant segment

Quick Re-read NOT relevant segment (verifying)

Remember Answer

19.2 %

COPY/Elaborate ideas

71.2 %

Copy/Elaborate ideas

9.6 %

Sequence for Good Answers

Read Question

sequence for poor answers

Text

Text

Re-read NOT relevant segment

Re-read relevant segment

Question = text segment

Question  text segment

Misunderstanding (20 %)

Copy words (35 %)

Copy words (15 %)

Misunderstanding (30 %)

Sequence for Poor Answers

Read Question

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Profit of text changes requires good strategies
  • Good Strategies:
    • Forming adequate goal representation
    • Selecting right information
    • Processing right information carefully
    • Using right information to answer
  • Poor strategies:
    • Superficial clues (repeated words)
    • Misunderstanding
    • Illusion of comprehension
  • Use of strategies: difference Good vs Poor comprehenders
slide28

Simple question:How did primitive men satisfy their feeding and dressing needs, before agriculture was invented?

Text: To be able to survive, people have always needed to cover their basic needs of diet, dress, dwelling, etc. Thus, to obtain food, the man had to collect wild fruits, fish and hunt from the moment in which he appeared on The Land

Correct answer: They collected wild fruits, they fished and they hunted.

slide29

Complex question:When did Industry appear?

Text: Part of the products obtained working the land or raising animals was consumed directly. Another part of the products (seeds, plants, skins, etc.) was transformed to make use of it.With the seeds of cereals bread was produced. With threads from different plants clothes were woven. Clothes and footwear were done with animal skins. To transform these products new activities appeared as those of bakers, shoemakers, weavers etc. A new progress had been produced with the birth of industry.

Correct answer:When products were transformed, to make use of them.

human work
Human Work

(2) To obtain food, the man had to collect wild fruits, fish and hunt from the moment in which he appeared on The Land. (3) When food was over in a place, people went to another place in search of more food. (4) With the step of the time, they learned to cultivate plants and to raise animals. (5) People no longer had to move from a place to another to hunt animals and collect wild fruits.(6) The agriculture and the stockbreeding had been invented. (7) Thanks to this progress, the man began to live in a fixed place and he could have food at his disposal during all the stations of the year.

human work31
Human Work

The agriculture and the stockbreeding had been invented. Thanks to this progress, the man began to live in a fixed place and he could have food at his disposal during all the stations of the year. Part of the products obtained working the land or raising animals was consumed directly. Another part of the products (seeds, plants, skins, etc.) was transformed for several uses. With the seeds of cereals bread was produced. With threads from different plants clothes were woven. Clothes and footwear were done with animal skins. To transform these products new activities appeared as those of bakers, shoemakers, weavers etc. A new progress had been produced with the birth of industry.