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The Spanish Empire. “We came here to serve God and the king, and also to get rich.”. Clash of Cultures. “Arrows and tomahawks were seldom a match for gun, cannons, and smallpox.”. Cortes’s Conquest. In February of 1519, Hernan Cortes set sail for Cuba with 11 ships and 600 men

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the spanish empire

The Spanish Empire

“We came here to serve God and the king, and also to get rich.”

clash of cultures
Clash of Cultures
  • “Arrows and tomahawks were seldom a match for gun, cannons, and smallpox.”
cortes s conquest
Cortes’s Conquest
  • In February of 1519, Hernan Cortes set sail for Cuba with 11 ships and 600 men
  • Among them were conquistadores
    • Unpaid mercenaries
    • Risking their lives for a share of the plunder and slaves
  • To prevent desertion, Cortes burned all but 1 ship when they arrived in Veracruz
  • In Veracruz, Cortes attacked a several small kingdoms that were independent of the Aztecs
  • He then convinced the defeated warriors to join him on his quest to defeat the Aztecs
the aztecs
The Aztecs
  • One of the most powerful civilizations in the world at the time or Cortes’s arrival
aztec religion
Aztec Religion
  • Human sacrifice was an important element of their faith
  • The Aztecs used these sacrifices to justify war
  • The Spanish were horrified by this (public torture and executions were also common in Europe at the time)
spanish invaders
Spanish Invaders
  • When Cortes entered Tenochtitlan, Montezuma II mistook him for a god
  • “We Spaniards have a disease of the heart that only gold can cure.”
  • Forced Aztecs into slavery to mine more gold and silver
  • Angry Aztecs stoned Montezuma II as a traitor
  • Cortes retreated, but returned to besiege the city while smallpox decimated the population
spanish america
Spanish America
  • Encomienda – system in which conquistadores became privileged landowners and controlled Indian villages
  • Indians provided goods and labor, encomiendas provided protection and missionaries
  • By 1503, the Spanish started bringing African slaves to America
spanish exploration in north america
Spanish Exploration in North America
  • Spain had the good luck of both arriving first and landing in the most lucrative spot
  • For most of the colonial period, much of today’s United States belonged to Spain
  • Spain’s colonial influence lasted 300 years, much longer than England’s or France’s
spanish exploration in north america1
Spanish Exploration in North America
  • Although centered in Mexico, the Spanish empire extended as far east as Florida and as far north as Alaska
  • The Spanish left their influence on place names, architecture, and culture
spanish exploration in north america2
Spanish Exploration in North America
  • Juan Ponce de Leon was the earliest explorer of Florida
  • The Spanish sailed the entire Gulf Coast
  • Explored as far north as Newfoundland
  • Established a short-lived colony in the Carolinas
  • Spanish culture spread everywhere they went
spanish exploration of north america
Spanish Exploration of North America
  • Hernando de Soto and his men explored from Florida to North Carolina, then west to the Mississippi River.
  • After his death, his men sailed down the Mississippi and found their way back to Mexico
  • The Spanish established provinces in Florida, northern California, and Texas as a means of deterring other Europeans from wandering into their claim
    • St. Augustine established to keep the Huguenots in South Carolina out of Florida
the spanish southwest
The Spanish Southwest
  • Permanent settlements were established in New Mexico, Texas, and California
  • Missions:
    • Settled in isolated areas by Catholic priests who would work to convert Indians
    • After 10 years, the mission would become a secular town
    • Land would be divided among converted Indians and they would get full Spanish citizenship
the spanish southwest1
The Spanish Southwest
  • Some Indians welcomed the missionaries as powerful witches
  • Others tried to use them against rival tribes
  • The rest usually submitted to Spanish rule
the spanish southwest2
The Spanish Southwest
  • Difficult living and sparse gold caused interest in the Southwest to wane
  • However, by 1610 Santa Fe was thriving was English colonists were struggling to survive at Jamestown
the pueblo revolt 1680
The Pueblo Revolt (1680)
  • Popé led a massive rebellion against the Catholic church
  • Executed priests and destroyed relics
  • Took Santa Fe has his capital
  • This event marked the greatest defeat the American Indians inflicted on European efforts to colonize the Americas
  • The Spanish wouldn’t reassert control over New Mexico for 14 years
horses and the great plains
Horses and the Great Plains
  • Spanish authorities made it illegal for Indians to own horses
  • The Pueblo Revolt gave Indians free access to Spanish horses for the first time
  • The Pueblo began trading horses with other tribes
  • By 1700, horses were found throughout the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains
horses and the great plains1
Horses and the Great Plains
  • The speed and strength of horses gave American Indians much greater mobility and power
  • Indians could travel farther to trade or fight
  • Horses could also carry heavy burdens from hunts
horses and the great plains2
Horses and the Great Plains
  • Horses enables tribes like the Sioux to become nomadic bison hunters
  • Bison provided almost everything these tribes needed for daily life (“tribal department store”)
  • Horses also competed with bison for food and enabled Indians to hunt them more quickly than herds could replenish
  • Horses also enabled diseases to spread futher faster
horses and the great plains3
Horses and the Great Plains
  • Horses became tribal status symbols that led to warfare
  • Horses, therefore, were a benefit and a detriment to American India society