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  1. The rise and fall of the Spanish Empire

  2. Spain c.1030

  3. Ferdinand and Isabella • Their marriage in 1469 combined Aragon and Castile, beginning the unification process (remain separate at 1st) • They took many steps to achieve strong rule and reduce the power of the Spanish nobility • Destroyed castles • Removed nobles from important positions (replaced with townspeople) • Forbade private warfare • Marriage into the royal family

  4. Religious persecution • Another step towards unification and absolute power was their support of the RC church • “one god one king” Jews and Muslims needed to be dealt with • 1482-1492: The Re-conquest of Granada • In 1492 the Jews were driven into Exile (property confiscated) • 1502: non-converting Moors were also exiled • Negative impacts? • Inquisition brought back to monitor converted Jews and Muslims

  5. Spain emerges • 1482-1492 re-conquered Granada from the Moors (The Reconquest) • Anti-French Political marriages strengthened Spain’s position • Daughter Joanna married to the son of the HRE Max I Archduke Phillip (mother of Charles V) • 2nd daughter Catherine of Aragon married to Arthur of England • 1517 The Kingdom of Spain has emerged with Charles I as its ruler

  6. Charles I or (V) (r. 1515-1556) • Grandson of Ferd. and Is. born in 1500 • At 6 King of the Netherlands • At 15 King of Spain • At 20 HRE • Problems (Luther, the French and the Turks) • 1556 retired to a monastery and divided his lands between his son and brother

  7. Phillip II (r.1556-1598) • Charles son Phillip II receives Spain, the Netherlands and the New World. • His Brother Ferdinand became the HRE • Phillip II: Spaniard, control freak, good organizer but lacked personal touch • Patron of the arts • El Greco • Miguel De Cervantes (Don Quixote)

  8. Phillip II and Problems with the Netherlands • Calvinists revolt against RC Spanish Rule • William Duke of Orange led the resistance • Support from Elizabeth I and anti-Spanish exiles • Dutch open the Dikes and flood the country to fend off the Spanish • The Peace of Utrecht • Created the Spanish Netherlands and the United Netherlands

  9. The Spanish Armada • Motivations: Phillip was angered by English aid to the Dutch, religious differences, commercial rivalries and the execution of Mary Stuart in 1587 • May 30 1588 130 Ships with 30,000 sailors set out for England • English And Dutch ships were able to defeat the Armada with the help of a storm that divided the Spanish fleet (destroyed 1/3rd of the Spanish ships) • Francis Drake (commander of English forces)

  10. Spain’s Decline • Reasons • Cost of war • Neglect of trade and industry (middle class) • Changes in agriculture (land to graze sheep not for food caused soil erosion) forced to import food • Over-dependence on colonial wealth • No investment in economy • Mines begin to slow down