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PRESIDENTS SO FAR… • George Washington (1788) • John Adams (1796) • Thomas Jefferson (1800) • James Madison (1808) • James Monroe (1816) • John Quincy Adams (1824) • Andrew Jackson (1828) • Martin Van Buren (1836) • William Henry Harrison (1840) • John Tyler (1841) • James K. Polk (1844)
MANIFEST DESTINY • By 1850 the American population had quadrupled since the Louisiana purchase • Many Americans took this growth for granted as evidence of God’s grace to the virtuous republic • During the 1840’s an expansionists group affiliated with the Democratic party called themselves the Young American Movement • They proclaimed it was “Manifest Destiny” of the United States to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent for the development of the great experiment of liberty • During the 1830s and 1840s, many Americans favored expanding Unites States territory. The term manifest destiny, meaning obvious or undeniable fate, was applied to this goal.
PROBLEMS OF EXPANSION • Manifest Destiny spelled doom for Native Americans and slaves • More land meant the extension of slavery into new territories • The division between slavery and freedom had supposedly been settled by the Compromise of 1820 • but when the issue became the expansion of slavery into new territories, the two-party system would have explosive debate • The first issue to test political peace regarding expansion was the annexation of Texas, which helps provoke the Mexican War
Texas Independence • The U.S. renounces any claim to Texas in an 1819 treaty with Spain, but many Americans believe Texas had been a part of the Louisiana Purchase • By the time the treaty is ratified in 1821 Mexico had won independence from Spain • Mexico wants to develop Texas and encourages settlement, Missourian Stephen F. Austin secures a land grant from Mexico to settle 300 families there • Despite promises of loyalty, there were Americans, and they also brought slaves, which Mexican law had just abolished • By 1835 30,000 Americans lived in Texas and outnumbered Texans 3 to 1 • In March 1836, delegates from across Texas met and declared Texas an independent republic and adopted a U.S. style Constitution • Texas then begins a revolution for freedom against Mexico • The Texas revolution took less than seven months
The Alamo • The most famous battle is that of the Alamo • Mexican general Santa Anna led the Mexican Army that captured the Alamo (a former mission that was converted) in San Antonio on March 6, 1836 • All 187 defenders were killed • This included the legendary Americans Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie • A few months later Sam Houston’s army captured Santa Anna and forced him to sign a treaty granting Texas independence • The Mexican Congress nullified the treaty later but never gathered enough strength to reclaim the territory and the Texans elected Sam Houston president and petitioned for annexation into the U.S.
THE ALAMO • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9dxGZhv4u8Y
Tyler Down, Polk Up • Tyler had problems during his presidency because he was against every major Whig platform, which were: • Pro-bank • Pro protective tariff • Pro-internal improvements • After John Tyler serves his term he runs for a second term but is defeated by Democratic Dark Horse Candidate James Polk (1844) • Although forgotten by many, he was a fairly strong President • He nearly went to war with Britain over Oregon, and acquired much of the present day southwest in the Mexican American War • Polk oversaw the opening of the U.S. Naval Academy, the Smithsonian Institute, the groundbreaking for the Washington Monument, and the issuance of the first postage stamps in the United States • He promised to serve only one term and did not run for reelection. He died of cholera three months after his term ended. • Scholars have ranked him favorably on the list of greatest presidents for his ability to set an agenda and achieve all of it. Polk has been called the "least known consequential president“of the United States
The Mexican War, 1846-1848 • In 1845 Polk sends an envoy to try and purchase California and New Mexico for $30 million • Mexico declines • He sends General Zachary Taylor to the disputed border in January 1846 • On May 9 1846 Polk drafts a war message asking Congress for a declaration of war due to Mexican defiance on the border issue • That night he learns Mexicans have crossed the Rio Grande and attacked an American patrol, he revises his war message on May 11 and it easily passes • Though outnumbered is most battles, American forces will win every battle and the war in a lopsided dominating fashion • They had better morale, a more established stable government, better weapons, leadership
THE FIRST TWO PHASES The war was carried out in 3 phases: • 1 - Zachary Taylor fought most battles along the Rio Grande • His victories make “Old Rough and Ready” a hero; which he rides to the presidency in a few years later • Iron will; unsoldierly appearance • 2 - The second phase of the strategy was New Mexico and California • The were led by General Stephen Watts Kearney who led an army of 1500 from Fort Leavenworth • He marches through New Mexico with little resistance and takes Sante Fe in August of 1846 • Kearney was then supposed to meet up with Captain John C. Fremont in California • Before news of the war had reached California, settlers there declared an independent Republic of California. • The uprising became known as the Bear Flag Revolt after the bear pictured on the new republic’s flag. • Kearney arrived in December 1846 but most of the work was already done
THE FINAL PHASE • The final phase involved invading Mexico itself • In a revolt Santa Anna had been exiled to Cuba • Someone convinced Polk that if they let Anna return to power, he would make peace on American terms for $30 million • Anna is allowed to return to power, and instead speaks not of peace, but raises an army to attack Taylor’s army near Monterrey • In the meantime Polk had chosen Winfield Scott “Old Fuss and Feathers” to lead the third phase of the war • “Old Fuss” due to his resplendent uniforms and strict discipline • Under Scott’s command, on September 14, 1847, Americans captured Mexico City, the capital of Mexico and the war ends
THE TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican War with substantial gains for the United States. (1848) • Mexico gave up its claims to Texas, California, and New Mexico in return for $15 million. • Five years later, Mexico sold more land to the United States. (1853) • This Gadsden Purchase included land that became southern New Mexico and Arizona.
RESULTS OF THE MEXICAN WAR • The Mexican War, together with the Gadsden Purchase and the 1846 division of Oregon, established the borders of the continental United States as they are today. • Oregon was acquired from Britain in the Compromise of 1846
WILMOT PROVISO • Another important effect of the Mexican War was its role in bringing the question of slavery to the forefront of American politics. • Congress faced a decision about whether or not to allow slavery in the newly acquired territories. Its decision could tip the balance of political power toward either the North or the South. • The Wilmot Proviso, first attached to an 1846 bill, stated that slavery would be forbidden in new territories acquired from Mexico. • It passes in the House but not in the Senate and exemplifies the growing division and sectionalism in the U.S. • It marked a split between Whigs and Democrats and a split between northern and southern Democrats • The Wilmot Proviso never became law. However, it revealed the growing gap between the North and the South over slavery.
James Polk Biography • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cmAMZShNqXg
THE ELECTION OF 1848 • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo did nothing to settle the slavery question in the new territories • Mexico had abolished slavery, would America reintroduce it? • Many figured the 1848 election would help decide the matter • Senator John P. Hale (New Hampshire) • Liberty Party • Position of those determined to bar slavery from all territories • Supported the Wilmot Proviso • John C. Calhoun (South Carolina) • Southern Democrat • “southern-rights” position • Challenged Wilmot Proviso • Introduced resolutions in Feb. 1847 affirming rights of slave owners to take their human property into any territory • Constitution protected rights of property; slavery should be legal in all territories
ELECTION (CONT.) • James Buchanan • Moderate Democrat • Endorsed idea of extending the Missouri Compromise 36, 30 line to the Pacific • Polk does not seek re-election • James Buchanon does; he was Secretary of State • Senator Lewis Cass • Democrat • Became known as the “Popular sovereignty” position • Let the settlers of each territory decide for themselves whether to permit slavery • No matter the candidate, and although no group would admit it – slavery was the only significant issue in late 1840’s politics
WHIGS & THE FREE SOIL PARTY • The Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor • A coalition of defected Whigs who were unhappy with the nomination of Zachary Taylor and anti-slavery democrats met in a convention in August 1848 • The Free Soil Partyproclaimed slavery as a barbaric and a social and moral evil • They nominated former President Martin Van Buren • The Free Soil Party did not win any states in the presidential election of 1848, but did win some seats in Congress • Whig candidate Zachary Taylor wins the 1848 election • He was a war hero from the Mexican War • He was a slave holder which helped him carry 8 out of 15 slave states • He dies 16 months into office from gastroenteritis (July 1850)
Zachary Taylor • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUWEJW91_Ew&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xAY1W6zUq2Q
LEADING TO COMPROMISE • Prigg v Pennsylvania (1842) had relieved states of the responsibility of any obligation to return fugitive slaves • Southerners demanded a strong national fugitive slave law • The new expansion issue threatening disunion was over Texas and New Mexico • 2 issues are threatening disunion: how fugitive slaves are returned, and what to do the New Mexico territory
The Compromise of 1850 Clay Proposes a Compromise In 1849, Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky proposed what would become known as the Compromise of 1850 as a middle ground on the slavery debate. Terms of the Compromise As part of the Compromise, California would become a free state, New Mexico and Utah would decide their own slavery status, and a Fugitive Slave Act would order United States citizens to help return enslaved people who had escaped.
FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW • The Compromise of 1850 outlined for the first time detailed measures on how escaped slaves would be returned • It created a federal commission who could issue arrest warrants of fugitives • To prove ownership all they needed was an avadavat from a slave state court or a white witness • Those who harbored fugitive slaves could be fined or imprisoned • Northerners detested this law • Many passed new personal liberty laws in defiance of the south • These laws did not make it impossible to recover slaves, but they made it very expensive and time consuming • Many uprisings started to free black captives from fugitive courts • The failure of the north to honor the Fugitive Slave Law became a bitter grievance of the south and many would later state it as reasons for seceding in 1861
DECLINE OF THE WHIGS • Millard Fillmore (1850 – 1853) • Becomes President when Zachary Taylor dies; former VP • Last Whig President • Slavery supporter; considered in bottom 10 of Presidents • The slavery issue divided the Whigs, as northern Whigs became disgusted with Whig leaders’ willingness to compromise on slavery. • Issues such as banks, which had once been central to the Whig Party, had been resolved, and many Whig leaders were dead or dying. • By the end of the 1850s, the Whig Party had largely disappeared.
Millard Fillmore • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WW1NpSQBCcY&feature=related
FRANKLIN PIERCE • Franklin Pierce would be elected in 1852 to inherit a bitter and growing divide between the North and the South • Democrat from New Hampshire • A northern man with southern principles • Supported annexing Cuba, which would uphold slavery • Offered Spain $130 million and supported Cuban revolution
DECADE THEMES FOR UNIT 3 • 1810 – 1820: War of 1812; Era of Good Feelings • 1820 – 1830: Era of Good Feelings; Age of Jackson • 1830 – 1840: Jacksonian Era • 1840’s – Territorial Expansion Dominates the 1840’s • 1850’s – Expansion of Slavery is key issues
PRESIDENTS SO FAR… • George Washington (1788) • John Adams (1796) • Thomas Jefferson (1800) • James Madison (1808) • James Monroe (1816) • John Quincy Adams (1824) • Andrew Jackson (1828) • Martin Van Buren (1836) • William Henry Harrison (1840) • John Tyler (1841) • James K. Polk (1844) • Zachary Taylor (1848) • Millard Fillmore (1850) • Franklin Pierce (1852)