Grammar Notes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

suki
unit 6 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Grammar Notes PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Grammar Notes

play fullscreen
1 / 149
Download Presentation
Grammar Notes
267 Views
Download Presentation

Grammar Notes

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Unit 6 Grammar Notes

  2. Week One

  3. GRAMMAR • Please take out your notes for your studies in Grammar …

  4. Critical Question • What are punctuation marks?

  5. Review You should know your parts of speech. preposition noun conjunctions verb interjections adjective pronouns adverb You should also understand the sentence Phrase Clause

  6. Punctuation Marks Symbols that indicate the structure and organization of written language, as well as intonation and pauses to be observed when reading aloud.

  7. The Basic Types of Punctuation • Ellipses • Asterisks • Quotations • Parenthesis • Brackets • Underlining and Italics • Apostrophe • The period • The question Mark • Exclamation point • Comma • Semicolons • The Colon • The Dash • The Hyphen

  8. Summary – • Use your notes to answer the question in one sentence. • What are punctuation marks?

  9. Grammar Matters ------

  10. GRAMMAR • Please take out your notes for your studies in Grammar …

  11. Critical Question • How is the period used in the sentence?

  12. The period. The period is a straightforward punctuation mark. Everyone knows a period ends a sentence that is a statement, but the period—unlike the other punctuation marks—can do more than just mark the end of a sentence.

  13. The period. The period is a straightforward punctuation mark. Everyone knows a period ends a sentence that is a statement, but the period—unlike the other punctuation marks—can do more than just mark the end of a sentence.

  14. What else????????. The period. • Abbreviation - Any shortened form of a word is an abbreviation. Examples: Ave. Avenue October Oct.

  15. What else????????. The period. • Some abbreviations are more commonly used than the actual words. Examples: Mister Mr. Mrs. Mistress Et cetera Etc.

  16. The period. When you have an abbreviation at the end of a sentence, don’t use a second period. Wrong Squiggly bought supplies for the trip—suntan lotion, a hat, a beach umbrella, a towel, etc.. Squiggly bought supplies for the trip—suntan lotion, a hat, a beach umbrella, a towel, etc. RiGHT However, if you end in a question or an exclamation with an abbreviation, you do include both the period for the abbreviation and the final question mark or exclamation point. RiGHT Did Squiggly actually buy suntan lotion, a hat, a beach umbrella, a towel, etc.?

  17. More on abbreviations … Acronyms - a special kind of abbreviation. - made from the first letter (or letters) of a string of words but are pronounced as if they were words themselves . Examples: NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration ROFL Rolling on the floor laughing Not in my back yard NIMBY Not all abbreviations are acronyms.

  18. What else????????. • Some acronyms have become such accepted words that they are written with lowercase letters, and many people do not know that they are acronyms. Examples: scuba Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus radar Radio detecting and ranging laser Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation

  19. No Strict Rules with Acronyms – Only ---Be Consistent Squiggly always wanted to work for NASA. Squiggly always wanted to work for N.A.S.A.

  20. Initialisms • These too are made from the first letter (or letters) of a string of words, but they don’t make pronounceable words. • FBI • CIA • FYI • PR No Strict Rules with Initialisms – Only ---Be Consistent

  21. Summary – • Use your notes to answer this question in 3 or more sentences. • How is the period used in the sentence?

  22. Grammar Matters ------

  23. GRAMMAR • Please take out your notes for your studies in Grammar …

  24. Critical Question • How is the question mark used in sentences?

  25. The question mark You use a question mark After a direct question.

  26. There are trickier scenarios

  27. Questions Masquerading as Statements • Sometimes direct questions are tricky because they can look like statements, and the only way to tell your reader otherwise is to add a question mark. There is a big difference in the meaning of the following sentences. Squiggly went to the store. Squiggly went to the store? The question mark makes it a direct question that shows surprise.

  28. Statements with Tag Questions • What about those little questions that come at the end of statements? You didn’t get my birthday, did you? It’s fun to play maracas, isn’t it? Bits like did you and isn’t it are called the tag questions, and they turn the whole sentence into a question, so use a question mark at the end.

  29. Indirect Questions • Do you have a curious nature? Do you wonder about things? When you wonder, your statements may sound like questions , but they are not direct questions, they’re indirect questions, and they don’t take a question mark. I wonder why he went to the store Squiggly asked if fries came with the burger. Bits like did you and isn’t it are called the tag questions, and they turn the whole sentence into a question, so use a question mark at the end.

  30. Indirect Questions Mixed with Direct Questions • It gets really crazy when you starte to mix direct and indirect questions. There are multiple ways to writes these. The question is at hand, who stole the cookies? Usually a comma after the first clause and a question mark after the direct question. Some style guides allow you to capitalize the first word in the direct question even though it comes in the middle of a sentence : The question is at hand, Who stole the cookies? Some use a colon: The question is at hand: who stole the cookies?

  31. The Polite Question • Sometimes your sentence looks like a question, but it is merely being polite. If you are writing a polite command, you do not need a question mark. Would you please let me do that for you.

  32. Summary – • Use notes to answer • How is the question mark used in sentences?

  33. Grammar Matters ------

  34. GRAMMAR • Please take out your notes for your studies in Grammar …

  35. Critical Questions • How is the exclamation point used in a sentence? What are the three punctuation marks that are used to end sentences?

  36. The Exclamation Point . • The exclamation point adds emphasis and indicates a strong emotion—surprise, panic, urgency, pain, horror. Don’t overuse it ! Stop now! Your writing will explode!

  37. The point • That marks the end of talking about the END of sentences – • Next up The guts of the sentence --- • Do not overuse • Reduce your credibility

  38. Summary – • How is the exclamation point used in a sentence? What are the three punctuation marks that are used to end sentences?

  39. Grammar Matters ------

  40. Week Two

  41. GRAMMAR • Please take out your notes for your studies in Grammar …

  42. Critical Question • What are commas, and how are they used in sentences?

  43. The comma—the most versatile (and therefore confusing) punctuation mark in the English language . Some people think that the rule is simply to place a comma anywhere they would naturally pause in a sentence, but this “rule” is wrong.

  44. The Serial Comma • The serial comma comes before the final conjunction in a list. • Whether to use a serial comma is a style decision. • Though not always necessary, it is generally good to use it. It helps to avail any confusion.. • Aardvark and Squiggly love chocolate, hiking, and fishing. • Aardvark and Squiggly love chocolate, hiking and fishing.

  45. The Serial Comma • Squiggly was proud of his new muffin recipes: blueberry, peanut butter and chocolate chip and coconut. • Squiggly was proud of his new muffin recipes: blueberry, peanut butter, and chocolate chip and coconut. • Squiggly was proud of his new muffin recipes: blueberry, peanut butter and chocolate chip, and coconut.

  46. Adjectives and Commas • Using commas with multiple adjectives is another challenge; fortunately, the rules are straightforward. 1. Can you put the word and between the adjectives and have the sentence still make sense? To decide if a comma is needed, ask 2 questions: • 2. Can you reverse the order of the adjectives and have the sentence still make sense? If you can do those two things, then use a comma between the adjectives because each adjective is describing the noun (coordinate adjectives.)

  47. Adjectives and Commas • Aardvark is a hairy and small mamma. • Aardvark is a small and hairy mammal. • Aardvark is a small, hairy mammal. • Squiggly found four green Easter eggs. • Squiggly found green four Easter eggs. • Squiggly found Easter green four eggs. • Squiggly found green Easter four eggs. If you cannot use andand reverse the order, the adjectives are called cumulative adjectives and you do not use a comma.

  48. Adjectives and Commas • Using commas with multiple adjectives is another challenge; fortunately, the rules are straightforward. 1. Can you put the word and between the adjectives and have the sentence still make sense? To decide if a comma is needed, ask 2 questions: • 2. Can you reverse the order of the adjectives and have the sentence still make sense? If you can do those two things, then use a comma between the adjectives because each adjective is describing the noun (coordinate adjectives.)

  49. The “ly” Adjective Challenge • Sometimes you will use adjectives that look like adverbs. That’s a challenge. If the word is and adjective, you will use a comma. Aardvark took a long daily run. , • Aardvark trains hard daily. • Aardvark trains daily hard. When daily is an adverb, a comma is not needed. The sentence does not make sense if it is reversed.

  50. The “ly” Adjective Challenge , • Squiggly is a friendly yellow beast. • Aardvark is a fiercely loyal friend. yuck • Aardvark isa loyal fiercely friend. yuck yuck • Aardvark is a fiercely and loyal friend.